BIOGEOGRAPHY 95 Important MCQS Part 1 FOR NTA UGC NET
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Q.1. The study of biosphere is called
(A) Ecological Niche
Biogeography, the study of the geographic distribution of plants, animals, and other forms of life. It is concerned not only with habitation patterns but also with the factors responsible for variations in distribution.
Q.2. Which of the following is the most controlling factors for distribution of natural vegetation
(A) Physical Factors
(B) Biotic Factors
(C) Edaphic Factors
(D) Climatic Factors
Q.3. The total assemblage of all plants and animals community of a particular region is called
(D) Floristic Kingdom
A biome is a large community of vegetation and wildlife adapted to a specific climate. The five major types of biomes are aquatic, grassland, forest, desert, and tundra.
Q.4. The transition zone between two ecosystems is known as
An ecotone is a transition area between two biomes. It is where two ecosystems overlap each other. It may be narrow or wide, and it may be local (the zone between a field and forest) or regional (the transition between forest and grassland ecosystems).
Q.5. Match List-I with List-11 and select the correct answer from the given below
|List-I (Concept)||List-II (Profounder)|
|A. Ecosystem||1. Charles Elton|
|B. Ecology||2. J. Grinnell|
|C. Ecological Niche||3. Ernest Heckle|
|D. Ecological Pyramid||4. A.G. Tansley|
- The term ecosystem was proposed by Tansley.
- The term Ecology was proposed by Ernest Heckle.
- Ecological Niche was coined first by J. Grinnell
- Concept of Ecological Niche was developed by Charles Elton.
- Charles Elton proposed the concept of ecological pyramids.
- Odum is the father of modern ecology.
- Clements proposed the theory of plant succession.
Q.6. The concept of Ecological Niche was developed by
(A) R.L. Linderman
(B) C.C. Park
(C) R.D. Oldham
(D) Charles Elton
- The word ‘niche’ was coined first by Grinnel (1917).
- Charles Elton (1927) used it in the sense of the functional status of an organism in its community.
- Later Odum (1971) gave the concept.
- Odum (1959) defined the ecological niche as the position or status of an organism within its community and ecosystem resulting from the organism’s structural adaptations, physiological responses, and specific behavior (inherited and/or learned).
- He emphasized that the ecological niche of an organism depends not only on where it lives but also on what it does. The place an organism lives, or where one would go to find it, is its habitat.
Q.7. The term Ethology was used by
(A) R.D. Oldham
(B) A.G Tansley
(C) Isidore G.S. Hilare
Ethology is the scientific study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.
Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire in 1854 he coined the term éthologie (ethology)
Q.8. The quantity or weight of living matter per unit area per unit time and represented in terms of dry weight is called
(C) Food Chain
Biomass is the amount of living matter in a given habitat, expressed either as the weight of organisms per unit area or as the volume of organisms per unit volume of habitat.
Q.9. The world distribution of flora (plants) has been divided into how many types
The ecologists and bio-geographers divided the flora of the world into six (6) major plant kingdoms in the world on the basis of floral characteristics i.e.
- Australian Kingdom;
- Cape Kingdom (South Africa);
- Antarctic Kingdom;
- Palaeo-tropical Kingdom;
- Neo-tropical Kingdom;
- Boreal Kingdom.
Q.10. In the distribution of plant community of the world. India comes under
(A) Australian Kingdom
(B) Boreal Kingdom
(C) Palaeo tropical Kingdom
(D) Neotropical Kingdom
Q.11. The world distribution of fauna (animals) community has been divided into how many types
Philip Sclater (1858) and Alfred Wallace (1876) identified the 6 main zoogeographic regions of the world used today-
- Palearctic region
- Nearctic region
- Neotropical region
- Ethiopian region
- Oriental region
- Australian region
Q.12. Indian sub-continent comes under what types of zoogeographical regions
Q.13. Which of the following biomes is also known as Mediterranean scrub forest?
(D) Deciduous forest
Chaparral is defined as a plant community consisting of evergreen, sclerophyllous shrubs adapted to a Mediterranean-type climate
Q.14. Sclerophyll vegetation is found in the
(A) Monsoon region
(B) Tropical region
(C) Tundra region
(D) Mediterranean region
Sclerophyll, type of vegetation characterized by hard, leathery, evergreen foliage that is specially adapted to prevent moisture loss.
Broad-leaved sclerophyll vegetation, including species such as holly (Ilex), is known as Mediterranean vegetation because it is characteristic of regions with a Mediterranean climate—hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters. Narrow-leaved sclerophyll vegetation is characteristic of species such as pines.
Q.15. Kangaroo are mostly found in
(A) South America