Part 3 of 100 PYQS from Theories & Models in Geography for UGC NET

 Part 3 of 100 PYQS from Theories & Models in Geography for UGC NET


(PDF) For download pdf file of Theories & Models 100 PYQS  – – go to the bottom of this post.


NTA UGC NET December 2018

Q.32. Which one of the following categories of urban land use as per given graph has the highest gradient of its economic rent at 2 km distance?


  1. Green land
  2. Residential
  3. Industrial
  4. Commercial

Answer: 4


Q.33.  Which one of the following authors initiated concept of ‘Isodapanes’ in space-economy?

  1. A. Losch
  2. A. Weber
  3. E. Hoover
  4. T. Planer

Answer: 2

Industrial Location Theory by Alfred Weber (1909)

Book- “Theory of the Location of Industries” (Uber den Standort der Industrien)

  • Based on Principle of Least Cost Location

Isodapanes- The line connecting with equal total transportation cost raw materials and final product transportation), is called isodapane.

Material Index

Location Triangle

Q.34. Which one of the following indices is used to indicate if the optimal location was closer to either raw material source or the market?

  1. Material Index
  2. Labour Cost Index

    3. Relative Spread Index

  1. Weighted Index

Answer: 1


Q.35. Which one of the following principles is representative of the following figure of Christaller’s Model?

  1. Transport Principle
  2. Administrative Principle
  3. Marketing Principle
  4. Threshold Principle

 Answer: 2

CENTRAL PLACE THEORY – Walter Christaller (1933)

v He proposed this theory in his book- ‘Central Places in Southern Germany’

v Central Place Theory (CPT) is an attempt to explain the spatial arrangement, size, and number of human settlements.

Christaller based his theory on two Economic Concepts:

  • Threshold Limit
  • Range of Goods

The Christaller Central Place theory has three principles, viz:

(a) Marketing Principle K=3

(b) Transportation Principle K=4

(c) Administrative principle K=7


(a) Marketing Principle K=3:

Higher order centre (Central Place) serves one third of populations each lower order centre and also serve its own population.

(1/3rd, Population of 6 lower order centre + 1 higher order centre)

Thus, K3= 

= 1+ 2

= 3


(b) Transportation Principle K=4

Higher order centre serves a half of the populations of six lower order centres and also its own population .

(½ population of 6 lower order centre + population of 1 higher order centre)

Thus, K4= 

= 1+ 3

= 4

(c) Administrative principle K=7

  • Each Higher order centre have complete control of six sorrouding lower order centre.
  • Market areas of smaller settlements are completely enclosed within market area of larger settlement.
  • (Population of six lower order centre + population of higher order centre)

Thus, K7= 

= 1+ 6

= 7


Q.36. Which one of the following economic principles is correct for organisation of settlements based on K= 4 presented in the Christaller’s central place model?

  1. Agricultural activities
  2. Transport
  3. Administrative
  4. Marketing

 Answer: 2


Q.37. The Two Cycle Theory on the origin of limestone caverns was proposed by

  1. Davis
  2. Gardner
  3. Malott
  4. Swinerton

Answer: 1


Cavern Formation Theory

  1. Two Cycle Theory – Davis
  2. Water Table Theory – Swinnerton
  3. Static Water zone theory – Garner
  4. Invasion Theory – Malott

Q.38. Which one of the following statements correctly explains the difference between Gravity model and Potential model?

  1. Gravity model deals with only two places at a time, while Potential model accounts for interactions between many places.
  2. Gravity model makes no provision for size of places, while Potential model considers size of places.
  3. Both Gravity model and Potential model are the same.
  4. Gravity model does not take distances into account, while Potential model takes distances into account.

 Answer: 1

Gravity model and Potential model

Gravity model:

The gravity model is based on Isaac Newton’s law of Gravitation.

Gravity Model was given by Stewart in which he explain about the population movements (migration).

Gravity Model holds that the interaction between two places can be determined by the product of the population of both places, divided by the square of their distance from one another.


The gravity model suggests that two separate groups of people, say in two cities, generate a mutual interaction proportional to the product of their sizes, and that this interaction is impeded by the frictional effect of the intervening distance over which it must take place.

The primary implication of this model is that distance is not the only determining factor in the interaction between two cities. For example, although Kingston, Canada is much closer to New York City than London it also has a much lower population than London so the interaction between London and New York City is likely to be higher than the interaction between Kingston and New York City.

Potential model:

Population potential indicates the intensity of possible interactions between social or economic groups at different locations. Therefore, it is an index of the nearness of people to one another and a measure of the influence of people at a distance.


NTA UGC NET July2018

Q.39. Given below are two statements, one is labelled as Assertion (A) and the other is labelled as Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct answer using the code given below.

Assertion (A): Central Business District (CBD) of a city has high concentration of wholesale stores, offices and cultural and recreational activities.

Reason (R): Prices and demand of real estate increases as distance towards CBD reduces.


  1. (A) is true, but (R) is false.
  2. Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
  3. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
  4. (A) is false, but (R) is true.

Answer: 3


Q.40. Match List I with List II and choose the correct answer from the code given below

List I   (Model Concept)

(a) Sector Model                    

(b) Concentric Zone Model

(c) Bid-Rent theory

(d) Central Business District (CBD) 


List II  (Definition)

(i) Model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings

(ii) Nucleus of a city where retail stores and offices are concentrated

(iii) Theory that refers how price and demand on real estate changes as distance  towards CBD increases.

(iv) Model of internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors or wedges radiating from CBD


  1. (a)-(ii), (b)-(i), (c)-(iv), (d)-(iii)
  2. (a)-(iv), (b)-(i), (c)-(iii), (d)-(ii)
  3. (a)-(iii), (b)-(i), (c)-(iv), (d)-(ii)
  4. (a)-(i), (b)-(i), (c)-iv), (d)-(iii)

Answer: 2


The bid rent theory is a geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand for real estate change as the distance from the central business district (CBD) increases. It states that different land users will compete with one another for land close to the city centre. This is based upon the idea that retail establishments wish to maximize their profitability, so they are much more willing to pay more for land close to the CBD and less for land further away from this area. This theory is based upon the reasoning that the more accessible an area (i.e., the greater the concentration of customers), the more profitable.

CBSE UGC NET July 2018

Q.41. Which one of the following statements correctly depicts the threshold according to Central Place Model?

(1) Point at which consumer movement is minimum

(2) Distance far which consumer will travel for a service

(3) Minimum number of people needed to support a service

(4) Economic base of a centre

Answer- 3

Q.42. Which one of the following Models is explained by the given figure below?

(1) Weber’s Model

(2) Central Place Model

(3) Von Thunen Model

(4) Gravity Model



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