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Q.1. First Order Relief features refers to

(A) Continents

(B) Mountains

(C) Plains and Plateaus

(D) Continents and Oceans Basins

Answer: D


First Order Relief features – Continents and Ocean Basins

Second Order Relief features – Mountain, Plateau, Plain, faults and rift valleys

Third Order Relief features – landforms of running water, ground water, sea waves, wind, glacier etc.


Q.2. Cirques are landform of

(1) First order

(2) Second order

(3) Third order

(4) Fourth order

Answer: 3


  • Cirque is the third order landform
  • It is Glacial erosional landform.
  • The downslope movement of a glacier from its snow-covered valley head & the the intensive shattering of the upland slopes, tend to produce a depression where neve or firn accumulates.
  • Plucking & abrasion further deepen the depression into a steep horse shoe-shaped basin called Cirque (in French), cwm (in wales) & Corrie (in Scotland)
  • Different name of Cirque
  1. Cirque – French
  2. Corrie- Scotland
  3. CWM- Wales
  4. Botn – Norway
  5. Kar – Germany

Q.3. The basaltic ocean crust has an average density of

(A) 2. 65 g/cm3

(B) 2.75 g/cm3

(C) 2.90 g/cm3

(D) 3. 0 g/cm3

Answer: C



  • Continental Crust composition- Silica & Aluminium
  • Oceanic Crust composition- Silica & Magnesium
  • Average Density of Oceanic Crust – 2.90 g/cm3 (grams per cubic centimeter)
  • Average Density of Continental Crust: 2.7 – 2.75 g/cm3
  • Average Density of Crust: 2.7 g/cm3


  • Upper Mantle composition- CROFESIMA (Chromium, Iron, Silica, Magnesium)
  • Lower Mantle composition- NIFESIMA (Nickel, Iron, Silica, Magnesium)
  • Average Density of Upper/Outer Mantle: 2.9 – 3.3 g/cm3
  • Average Density of Lower/Inner Mantle: 3.3 – 5.7 g/cm3



  • Core composition- NIFE (Nickel and Iron)
  • Average Density of Upper/Outer Core: 9.9-12.2 g/cm3
  • Average Density of Lower/Inner Core: 12.6-13 g/cm3
Q.4. Guttenberg discontinuity is found between the:

(1) Upper core and lower core

(2) Mantle and the core

(3) Crust and the mantle

(4) Upper mantle and lower mantle

Answer:  2

Q.5. ‘Mohorovicic discontinuity’ marks the boundary between:

(1) Continental Shelf and Ocean crust

(2) Asthenosphere and lithosphere

(3) Crust and the upper mantle

(4) Core and the mantle

Answer: 3

Q.6. Conrad discontinuity is found between

(1) Upper mantle and Lower mantle

(2) Outer and Inner core

(3) Sial and Sima

(4) Sima and Nife

Answer: 3


Q.7.  The upper part of the mantle upon which the crust of the Earth floats is known as

(1) Hydrosphere

(2) Mesosphere

(3) Asthenosphere

(4) Barysphere

Answer: 3


  • The asthenosphere is the layer of the Earth that lies below the lithosphere. It is a layer of solid rock where the extreme pressure and heat cause the rocks to flow like a liquid. The rocks in the asthenosphere are not as dense as the rocks in the lithosphere. This allows the tectonic plates in the lithosphere to move around on the Earth’s surface.
  • The asthenosphere extends from about 100 km (60 miles) to about 700 km (450 miles) below Earth’s surface.
  • It is highly viscous, mechanically weak and ductile region of the upper mantle of the Earth


  • The mesosphere refers to the mantle in the region under the lithosphere and the asthenosphere, but above the outer core. The upper boundary is defined as the sharp increase in seismic wave velocities and density at a depth of 660 kilometers (410 mi).

Q.8. What are the evidences in favour of the Continental Drift Theory?

(i) Zig-Saw fit

(ii) Trans current faults

(iii) Fossils in different areas

(iv) Convection in mantle


(1) i and iv

(2) ii and iv

(3) i and iii

(4) i and ii

Answer: 3

Continental Drift Theory

  • Continental drift theory was proposed by Alfred Wegener in 1912.
  • The theory deals with the distribution of the oceans and the continents.
  • Aim of this theory was to explain the climatic history of Earth
  • According to Wegener’s Continental Drift theory, all the continents were one single continental mass (called a Super Continent) – Pangaea and a Mega Ocean surrounded this supercontinent. The mega ocean is known by the name Panthalassa.
  • A large super-continent PANGEA split into smaller fragments about 200-300 million years ago. These then drifted apart to form the present arrangement of continents.

Forces responsible for Continental Drift

  1. Gravitational Forces, pole-fleeing force, and buoyancy force: Northward Movement (Towards Equator)
  2. Tidal Forces: Westward Movement

Evidence in Support of the Continental Drift Theory:

  1. Juxta Fit of Continents
  2. Structural and Stratigraphic Evidences
  3. Fossil Evidences
  4. Placer Deposits Evidences
  5. Coal Deposits Evidences
  6. Palaeoclimatic Evidence


Q.9. Drift Theory of Wegener was postulated mainly to explain, which one of the following?

(A) Ice Age and Glacial movements

(B) Geological similarities of the coasts and Glaciations

(C) Distribution of landforms and ocean floors

(D) Major climatic changes in the world

Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below

(1) (A) and (B) only

(2) (B) and (D) only

(3) (C) and (D) only

(4) (A) and (D) only

Answer: 2

Q.10. Which among the following is one of the forces responsible for continental drift according to Wegner?

(1) Tidal force

(2) Convection currents

(3) Tensional force

(4) Compressional force

Answer: (1)

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