BIOGEOGRAPHY 95 Important MCQS Part 4 FOR NTA UGC NET
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Q.46. Which of the following is the basic unit of study of ecology
Ecology is the study of interaction between living organism and their environment. The basic unit of study in ecology is organism.
Q.47. Who among the following is known as ‘Father of Ecology in India?
(A) P Maheshwari
(B) S.K. Kashyap
(C) M.S Swaminathan
(D) Professor Ramdeo Mishra
Ramdeo Misra (1908–1998) is considered as Father of Indian Ecology because he had contributed remarkably in the field of Ecology among his contemporaries in respect to the Indian context.
He laid the strong foundation of Ecology in India. He helped in shaping Ecology as a major discipline for teaching as well as for Research in traditional departments in India in many ways.
Q.48. The Wet dense forest of Amazon basin are known as
High temperature and abundant rainfall support a luxuriant tropical rain forest.
In the Amazon lowlands, the forest is so dense that it is called ‘selvas’. (selvas: A dense tropical rainforest)
Q.49. In which of the following plants are Rhizobium bacteria involved in fixing atmospheric nitrogen
Rhizobium bacteria is often found in the roots of legumes which help in nitrogen fixation. So, it is present inside root nodules of peas, beans and peanuts.
Q.50. Who developed the Hotspot Concepts?
(A) M.S. Swaminathan
(B) P.K. Iyengar
(C) C.C. Park
(D) Norman Myers
The concept of biodiversity hotspots was developed by the Norman Myers in 1988 when he identified that the tropical forest losing its plants species as well as habitat.
Q.51. Eutrophication means
(A) Nutrient dissipated
(B) Forest containing acid rain
(C) Enrichment of nutrients in a water body
(D) Decay of Aquatic animals bodies
Eutrophication is the process in which a water body becomes overly enriched with nutrients, leading to plentiful growth of simple plant life. The excessive growth (or bloom) of algae and plankton in a water body are indicators of this process. Eutrophication is considered to be a serious environmental concern since it often results in the deterioration of water quality and the depletion of dissolved oxygen in water bodies. Eutrophic waters can eventually become “dead zones” that are incapable of supporting life.
Q.52. Minamata disease in Japan was occurred due to
(A) Lead pollution
(B) Fluoride pollution
(D) Mercury pollution
Minamata disease was first discovered in Minamata city in Japan, in 1956. It was caused by the release of methylmercury in the industrial wastewater from the Chisso Corporation’s chemical factory, which continued from 1932 to 1968. This highly toxic chemical bioaccumulated in shellfish and fish in Minamata Bay and the Shiranui Sea, which, when eaten by the local population, resulted in mercury poisoning. Cat, dog, pig, and human deaths continued for 36 years.
Q.53. Green data book containing a list of
(A) Rare plants species
(B) Rare plants and animals
(C) Endangered plants
(D) Extinct animal only
Red Data Book:
The Red Data Book keeps a record of all the endangered plants and endangered animals.
Green Data Book:
Which enlists rare plants growing in Protected areas like botanical gardens.
Blue Data Book:
Compiled data on endangered species of the world in the Blue Book.
Q.54. The Ramsar convention is related to the
(A) Protection of wild life
(B) Protection of theearth
(C) Protection of rivers and lakes
(D) Conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands
The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands is an international treaty for “the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands”. It is also known as the Convention on Wetlands.
It is named after the city of Ramsar in Iran where it was signed on 2nd of February 1971.
The 2nd of February each year is World Wetlands Day.
At the centre of the Ramsar philosophy is the “wise use” of wetlands.
Wise use: maintenance of ecological character within the context of sustainable development.
There are 42 wetlands in India that have international importance and hence recognized as the Ramsar Sites in India.
Q.55. The place Ramsar is situated in the country of
Q.56. Agenda – 21 was an outcome of the meeting at
(D) Rio de Janeiro
Agenda – 21
Agenda 21 is a non-binding action plan of the United Nations (UN) related to sustainable development.
Hosted – Brazil in Rio de Janeiro.
It was an outcome of the Earth Summit 1992.
The number 21 refers to an agenda for the 21st century.
Its aim is achieving global sustainable development.
Since 2015, Sustainable Development Goals are included in the Agenda 2030.
Q.57. ‘IUCN’ stands for
(A) International Unity on Community and Nationality
(B) Inter-state Unity of Culture Nature
(C) International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
(D) Indian Union Congress Nation
Q.58. ‘PAN’ stands for
(A) Peroxy Acetyl Nitrate
(B) Principle of Advanced Nations
(C) Presume Additional Noise
(D) Prime Added Nature
Q.59. Chipko movement is related to
(A) Soil Conservation
(B) Noise Pollution
(C) Endangered Species
(D) Forest Conservation
The Chipko Movement was launched by Chandi Prasad Bhatt and Sunder Lal Bahuguna in 1973, against large scale cutting of trees by timber contractors in the Uttarakhand hills. The movement started in Chamoli district of Garhwal region in Uttarakhand. Local hill women from villages were organised and made aware of ecological threat in the hills. They actively participated in the campaign. They embraced or hugged the trees when the timber contractors reached and forced them to leave. This novel campaign for saving hill forests and greenery spread all along the hill region and to Karnataka in South also in 1983.
Q.60. Biosphere reserves are being threatened with
(B) Soil Erosion
(D) Population Rate
A biosphere reserve is a protected area for the conservation of ecosystems and genetic diversity. The biosphere reserves are formulated in order to protect the endangered and endemic plants and animals. There are certain factors which affect the nature of these reserves. Pollution results in the decrease in the number of the species. The exposure to the pollutants may develop diseases and other problems in the organisms. There is degradation of the land and the atmosphere due to the disposal of wastes which in turn affects the area under reserves.