Climatology 125 Important MCQS Part 1 FOR NTA UGC NET

Climatology 125 Important MCQS Part 1 FOR NTA UGC NET


(PDF) For download pdf file of Climatology 125 MCQS – – go to the bottom of this post.


Q.1. How much percentage of water vapour contains in the atmosphere

(A) 0-2 percent

(B) 0-4 percent

(C) 0-5 percent

(D) 0-10 percent

Answer: C


Water Vapour:

  • Varies in atmosphere.
  • Decrease with altitude
  • 0-5 percent of water vapour contains in the atmosphere
  • Accounts for 4% by volume in warm and tropical regions

             & 1% by volume in cold and polar regions.

  • Decreases from Equator to Pole
  • Absorbs insolation & act as blanket
  • Contributes in stability and instability.


Q.2. In which of the following layer of atmosphere all weather phenomena occurs?

(A) Troposphere

(B) Stratosphere

(C) Mesosphere

(D) Thermosphere

Answer: A



  • It means the regions of mixing
  • Lowermost layer of atmosphere
  • Height/Altitude: 8km at the poles and 18 km at the equator.
  • Temperature and pressure both decreases with increasing height, at the rate of 6.50c per 1000 meter. (6.50c/1000m) (Normal Lapse Rate)
  • This layer consists of different gases, dust particles and water vapour.
  • It is meteorologically the most significant zone because all the weather phenomena like rainfall, fog, hailstorm, cyclone, anticyclone storm occur here.
  • The upper boundary is called ‘Tropopause’ means where the mixing stops.
  • Tropopause between- Troposphere and Stratosphere.



Q.3. The Environmental Lapse Rate or Normal Lapse Rate (NLR) in the atmosphere is

(A)  5.60c per 1000 meter

(B) 6.50c per 1000 meter

(C) 6.000c per 1000 meter

(D) 6.650c per 1000 meter

Answer: B



  • Temperature and pressure both decreases with increasing height, at the rate of 6.50c per 1000 meter. (6.50c/1000m) (Normal Lapse Rate)


  1. Which layer reflects the medium and high frequency radio waves back to the earth?

(A) Stratosphere

(B) Mesosphere

(C) lonosphere

(D) Exosphere

Answer: C



Due to the ability of ionized atmospheric gases to refract high frequency (HF, or shortwave) radio waves, the ionosphere can reflect radio waves directed into the sky back toward the Earth.



Q.5. Which of the following is the uppermost layer of the atmosphere

(A) Thermosphere

(B) Exosphere

(C) Ionosphere

(D) Mesosphere

Answer: B



Q.6. Match List-I with List-II from the codes given below

List-I List-II
A. E-Layer 1. Southern Light
B. F1 and F2 Layer 2. Kennelly Heaviside layer
C. Ozone Layer 3. Northern Light
D. Aurora Borealis 4. Stratosphere
E. Aurora Australis 5. Appleton Layer



A. 2 3 5 4 1
B. 3 1 4 5 2
C. 2 5 4 1 3
D. 2 5 4 3 1

Answer: D



Q.7. Ozone gas is concentrated between

(A) 5 to 20 Km.

(B) 15 to 35 Km.

(C) 35 to 50 Km.

(D) 10 to 20 Km.

Answer: B



The lower portion of the stratosphere having maximum concentration of ozone is called Ozonosphere, which is confined between the height of 15 km to 35 km.





Q.8. The Ozone layer protects the earth from

(A) Cosmic Rays

(B) X-rays

(C) Infrared Rays

(D) Ultra Violet Rays


Answer: D


The ozone layer acts as a filter for the shorter wavelength and highly hazardous ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from the sun, protecting life on Earth from its potentially harmful effects.


Q.9. The time taken by sun rays, to the earth is

(A) 20 minutes 8 second

(B) 8 minutes 20 second

(C) 9 minutes 35 second

(D) 10 minutes 20 second

Answer: B



Q.10. Match List-I with List-ll and from the using codes given below

List-I List-II
A. Perihelion 1. Pyranometer
B. Apehelion 2. 51 percent
C. Heat Budget of the Earth 3. 4th July
D. Isolation Measurement Instrument 4. 3rd January



A. 1 2 3 4
B. 4 3 1 2
C. 4 3 2 1
D. 3 4 2 1


Answer: C



Q.11. The portion of incident radiation energy reflect back from the surface is called

(A) Heat Budget

(B) Photons

(C) Absorption

(D) Albedo

Answer: D


  • Albedo: The ratio between the total solar radiation falling upon a surface and the amount reflected.
  • Represented as %
  • Earth average albedo = 35%
  • Lowest- Dark Soil
  • Highest- Snowfall


Surface Albedo
Fresh Snow 80-90%
Desert 35-45%
Grasses 26%
Crops 15%
Brick-concrete 10-20%



Q.12. The transfer of Heat through the molecular of matter in any body is called

(A) Convection

(B) Conduction

(C) Radiation

(D) Counter Radiation

Answer: B


Conduction: (transfer of heat by contact)

  • heat transfer from a warmer object to a cooler object when they come in contact with each other.
  • transfer continues until both bodies maintain the same temperature.
  • Conduction is important in heating the lower layers of the atmosphere



Q.13. The hottest place on the earth is considerable to be

(A) Quetta

(B) Jacobabad

(C) Al-Azizia

(D) Jaisalmer

Answer: C



Q.14. The transfer of heat energy through the movement of a mass of substance from one place to another is called

(A) Convection

(B) Conduction

(C) Radiation

(D) Counter Radian

Answer: A


Convection: (vertical transfer of heat)

  • Transfer of heat by the movement of a mass or substance from one place to another, generally vertical, is called convection.
  • The air of the lower layers of the atmosphere gets heated either by the earth’s radiation or by conduction. The heating of the air leads to its expansion. Its density decreases and it moves upwards.
  • The continuous ascent of heated air creates a vacuum in the lower layers of the atmosphere. As a consequence, cooler air comes down to fill the vacuum, leading to convection.
  • The cyclic movement associated with the convectional process in the atmosphere transfer heat from the lower layer to the upper layer and heats up the atmosphere.
  • The convection transfer of energy is confined only to the troposphere.



Q.15. The temperature increases with increasing altitude due to certain conditions is called

(A) Normal Lapse Rate

(B) Inversion of Temperature

(C) Temperature Variation

(D) Temperature Gradient

Answer: B


It is a reversal of the normal behavior of temperature in the troposphere. Under this meteorological phenomenon a layer of warm air lies over the cold air layer.

Favourable Conditions for Temperature Inversion

  • Long winter nights: Loss of heat by terrestrial radiation from the ground surface during night may exceed the amount of incoming solar radiation.
  • Cloudless and clear sky: Loss of heat through terrestrial radiation proceeds more rapidly without any obstruction.
  • Dry air near the ground surface: It limits the absorption of the radiated heat from the Earth’s surface.
  • Slow movement of air: It results in no transfer or mixing of heat in the lower layers of the atmosphere.
  • Snow covered ground surface: It results in maximum loss of heat through reflection of incoming solar radiation.


Q.16. Read out the following conditions:

  1. Cloudy Sky
  2. Cold Dry Air
  3. Strong Winds
  4. Long Winter Nights

Which of the above conditions promote inversion of temperature?

 (A) 1, 2 and 4

(B) 2, 3 and 4

(C) 1 and 4

(D) 2 and 4

Answer: D



Q.17. The coldest place on the earth surface is

(A) Ven Cover

(B) Verkhoyansk

(C) Vostok

(D) Norway

Answer: C


The lowest natural temperature ever directly recorded at ground level on Earth is −89.2 °C at the Soviet Vostok Station in Antarctica



Q.18. Which of the following is known as the country of mind night sun?

(A) France

(B) Norway

(C) Netherlands

(D) Sweden

Answer: B


During the summer solstices, the North Pole is inclined towards the Sun. Therefore, the duration of the day increases from 12 hours at Equator to 24 hours at the Arctic Circle and the regions beyond it. Norway lies beyond the Arctic Circle. Thus the Sun neither rises nor sets for few months in a year. Therefore, it is known as the land of the midnight Sun. The Sun here is visible at a very low height just above the horizon. Hammerfest in Norway experiences continuous sunlight from May 13 to July 29.


Q.19. What is Kinetic Energy?

(A) It is the energy of motion

(B) It is thermal energy

(C) It is latent energy

(D) It is the stored form of energy

Answer: A



Potential energy is the latent energy in an object at rest, and is one of two forms of energy. The other form, kinetic energy, is the energy expressed by an object in motion. … The actual potential energy of an object depends on its position relative to other objects.


Q.20. The standard air pressure at the sea level is

(A) 1002 MB

(B) 1025.13 MB

(C) 1013.25 MB

(D) 1008 MB

Answer: C


The standard, or near-average, atmospheric pressure at sea level on the Earth is 1013.25 millibars, or about 14.7 pounds per square inch, as elevation increase, there is less overlying atmospheric mass, so that atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing elevation.


Q.21. The dividing line between day and night is called the

(A) Prime Meridian

(B) Standard Meridian

(C) International Date Line

(D) Circle of Illumination

Answer: D


The imaginary line that separates light from the darkness and day from the night is known as the circle of illumination. Earth’s axis refers to an imaginary line going through the centre of the earth from top to bottom. The circle of illumination cuts all latitudes into half on the spring and autumnal equinoxes. The circle of illumination bisects the equator while the circle of illumination separates light from darkness and day from night, the axis is a line along which the earth rotates.

Q.22. The average rate of albedo on the Earth is

(A) 25 percent

(B) 30 percent

(C) 35 percent

(D) 40 percent

Answer: C



Q.23. Which one of the following weather instruments is kept outside the Stevenson screen?

(A) Barometer

(B) Anemometer

(C) Hydrograph

(D) Maximum and minimum thermometers

Answer: B


A Stevenson screen or instrument shelter is a shelter or an enclosure to meteorological instruments against precipitation and direct heat radiation from outside sources, while still allowing air to circulate freely around them.

It forms part of a standard weather station and holds instruments that may include thermometers (ordinary, maximum/minimum), a hygrometer, a psychrometer, a dewcell, a barometer, and a thermograph.

Stevenson screens may also be known as a cotton region shelter, an instrument shelter, a thermometer shelter, a thermoscreen, or a thermometer screen.

Its purpose is to provide a standardised environment in which to measure temperature, humidity, dewpoint, and atmospheric pressure. It is white in color to reflect direct solar radiation. The common type of Stevenson screen has a maximum and minimum thermometer for daily readings


Q.24. Which of the following belt is called “Doldrums”?

(A) Equatorial low pressure belt

(B) Sub-tropical high pressure belt

(C) Sub-polar low pressure belt

(D) Polar high pressure belt

Answer: A


Equatorial trough of low pressure is the zone of convergence of trade winds blowing equatorward from the sub-tropical belts of high pressure in the northern and southern hemisphere. Within this belt the winds are light and variable with frequent calms. That is why this belt is also known as doldrums.


Q.25. The Horse latitude refers to

(A) 25 degree – 35 degree latitude

(B) 20 degree – 35 degree latitude

(C) 30 degree – 40 degree latitude

(D) 30 degree – 35 degree latitude

Answer: D



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