Q.1. The given drainage pattern represents, which one of the following?

  1. Parallel
  2. Dendritic
  3. Centripetal
  4. Angular


Dendritic Drainage Pattern :

  • This is an irregular tree branch shaped pattern.
  • Drainage which is branching or ramifying (branch out or cause to branch out) thereby giving the appearance of a tree.
  • A dendritic pattern develops in a terrain which has uniform lithology, and where faulting and jointing are insignificant.
  • Examples: Indus, Godavari, Mahanadi, Cauvery, Krishna.

Parallel Drainage Pattern:

  • The tributaries seem to be running parallel to each other in a uniformly sloping region.
  • Example: Rivers of lesser Himalayas and The small and swift rivers originating in the Western Ghats that flow into Arabian Sea

Centripetal Drainage Pattern :

  • In a low lying basin the streams converge from all sides.
  • Examples: streams of Ladakh, Tibet, and the Baghmati and its tributaries in Nepal.

Angular Drainage Pattern :

  • When the upland has an outer soft stratum, the radial streams develop subsequent tributaries which try to follow a circular drainage around the summit.
  • Example: Black Hill streams of South Dakota.
  • This is not a very common drainage pattern in India. Some examples of this are however found in Pithoragarh (Uttarakhand), Nilgiri Hills in Tamil Nadu and Kerala.


Q.2. The Hydraulic Slope Theory was given by

  1. C. Darwin
  2. A. Goudie
  3. R.E Horton
  4. C.A Cotton


Q.3. Match List I with List II

LIst I (Mercalli Scale) List II (Richter magnitude corresponding to highest intensity reached)
(a) VI strong (i) 7 – 7.3
(b) VII Destructive (ii) 4.9 – 5.4
(c) X Disastrous (iii) above 8.1
(d) XII Catastrophic (iv) 6.2

Choose the correct options from the following:

a b c d
1. iv iii ii i
2. iii iv i ii
3. ii iv i iii
4. i ii iii iv


Mercalli Scale Category Richter Magnitude Scale Effects
I- Intrumental 1-2 Detected only by instruments (Not Felt)
II- Very feeble 3 Felt by only few people, especially on upper floors of tall building
III- Slight 3.5 Felt by people at rest, like passing of a truck
IV- Moderate 4 Generally perceptible by people in motion, loose objects disturbed
V- Rather Strong 4.6 Dishes broken, bells rung, pendulum clocks stopped, people awakened.
VI- Strong 5 Felt by all, some people frightened, damage felt, some plaster cracked
VII- Very strong 5.5 Noticed by people in autos, damage to poor construction
VIII- Destructive 6 Chimneys fall, much damage in substantial buildings, heavy furniture overturned
IX- Ruinous 6.5 Great damage to substantial structures (ground crack, pipes broken)
X- Disastrous 7 Many buildings destroyed
XI- Very Disastrous 7.5 Few structures left standing
XII- Catastrophic 8 Total destruction


Q.4. Match List I with List II


List I (Geological Era) List -II (Geological Period)
(a) Neozoic (i) Jurassic
(b) Mesozoic (ii) Miocene
(c) Cenozoic (iii) Pleistocene
(d) Palaeozoic (iv) Silurian

Select the correct answer for the codes given below:

  1. (a)- (i), (b)- (iii), (c)-(iv), (d)-(ii)
  2. (a)-(iv), (b)-(ii), (c)-(iii), (d)-(i)
  3. (a)-(ii), (b)-(iii), (c)-(iv), (d)-(i)
  4. (a)-(iii), (b)-(i), (c)-(ii), (d)-(iv)



Geological Era Geological Period Time Period
Neozoic Holocene, Pleistocene 0-2 million year ago
Cenozoic Pliocene, Miocene, Oligocene, Eocene, Paleocene 2-65 million year ago
Mesozoic Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic 65-245 million year ago
Palaeozoic Permian, Carboniferous, Devonian, Silurian, Ordovician, Cambrian 245 – 570 million



Q.5. The ‘Doctrine of Uniformitarianism’ was postulated by

  1. Cotton
  2. Dutton
  3. Hutton
  4. Dalton


6. Who gave the idea that there was an ice age during which most of Northern Europe was covered by Ice Sheets?

  1. W.M Davis
  2. L. Agassiz
  3. W. Penck
  4. A.C Ramsay


7. The statement “The present is the key to the past” was made by-

  1. W.M Davis
  2. Walther Penck
  3. James Hutton
  4. F. Von Ricthofen


  1. Match List I with List-II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:
List I (Author) List-II (Works)
(a) John Palhiek (i) Introduction of coastal geomorphology
(b) Stephen Trudgill (ii) Limestone geomorphology
(c) C.H. Crickmay (iii) The work of the river
(d) Charles Lyell (iv) Principles of Geology

Choose the correct options from the following:

a b c d
1. i ii iii iv
2. iii iv i ii
3. iv iii ii i
4. ii i iv iii




John Palhiek     —              Introduction of coastal geomorphology

Stephen Trudgill  —           Limestone geomorphology

C.H. Crickmay     —          The work of the river

Charles Lyell    —              Principles of Geology


9.Which one of the following options best describes the world distribution of active volcanoes?

  1. They are found in association with young folded mountain systems.
  2. They occur in river flood plains
  3. They are associated with old eroded mountain chains.
  4. They lead to form chains around ocean basins


10. Which one of the following groups of landforms are erosional features?

  1. Stalagmites, Natural levees, Stacks, Talus
  2. Corrie, Yardang, Gorge, Sinkholes
  3. Natural Bridges, Beaches, Eskers, Star dunes
  4. Flood plain, Moraina, Calderas, ‘U’ shaped Valley


Corrie- Glacial

Yardang- Wind

Gorge- River

Sinkholes- Karst Topography


11. The concept of ‘Panplain’ was propounded by

  1. Swinerton
  2. Johnson
  3. Davis
  4. Crickmay


Peneplain: W.M Davis

Endrumpf: W. Penck

Panplain: C.H Crickmay

Pediplain: L.C King

Etchplain: Pugh &  Thomas

Panfan: A.C Lawson


12. The rigid masses surrounding the geosyncline were termed by Kober as-

  1. Kratogen
  2. Primarumph
  3. Endrumph
  4. Monadnock


13. Two cycle theory regarding the ‘origin of Limestone caves’ was propounded by-

  1. Swinerton
  2. Gardner
  3. W.M Davis
  4. Malott


Two Cycle Theory –     W.M Davis

Water Table Theory – Swinerton

Static Waterzone Theory- Garner

Invasion Theory – Malott


14. In the process of erosion, the removal of materials by solution is called

  1. Corrasion
  2. Attrition
  3. Corrosion
  4. Sapping


Erosional Mechanism of River:

A river may erode in 4 ways-

A. Abrasion/Corrasion:

Load carried by a river will grind against its bed and sides.

This process slowly wears the bed and sides away.

B. Attrition:

Shattering and breaking up of the stream load through collision and mutual abrasion, thus loads gets broken into smaller pieces.

C. Hydraulic Action:

The work of turbulence in the water.

Running water causes friction in the joints of rocks in a stream channel.

Lifting and quarrying effects of rushing water.

C. Solution/Corrosion:

Certain minerals in rocks like limestone can be dissolved in water.

Rocks then eroded.



Q.15  Which of the following type of weathering is generally dominant in Greater Himalays?

  1. Block disintegration
  2. Scree formation
  3. Exfoliation
  4. Granular disintegration


Block Disintegration: This type of disintegration takes place in rocks with numerous joints acquired by mountain making or by shrinkage due to cooling. This disintegration in rocks can be achieved by comparatively weaker forces.

The Great Himalayas or Greater Himalayas is the highest mountain range of the Himalayan Range System, mostly composed of ancient crystalline rocks and old marine sedimentary formations.

Q.16 Which one of the following comprises the largest reservoir of the earth’s oxygen?

  1. Lithosphere
  2. Atmosphere
  3. Hydrosphere
  4. Biosphere


Oxygen is one of the most abundant elements on Earth and represents a large portion of each main reservoir.

Lithosphere (46.6%): The lithosphere is 46.6 % oxygen by volume present mainly as silica minerals (SIO2) and their oxide minerals.

Hydrosphere (33%): The hydrosphere is 33% oxygen by volume present mainly as a component of water molecules with dissolved molecules including free oxygen and carbonic acids (HxCO3).

Biosphere (22%):  The biosphere is 22 % oxygen by volume present mainly as a component6 of organic molecules (CxHxNxOx) and water molecules.

Atmosphere (20.9%): The atmosphere is 20.9% oxygen by volume.


Q.17 Consider the following features related to glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF):

(a) Involve sudden release of melt water

(b) Failure of moraine and ice dam

(c) Large down stream discharge causing floods

(d) Rapid event casting for few seconds


Select the correct answer from the options given below:

  1. (a) and (b) are correct
  2. (c) and (d) are correct
  3. (a), (b) and (c) are correct
  4. (b), (c) and (d) are correct



Glacial Lkae Outburst Floods:

Aglacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is a release of meltwater from a moraine or ice dam due to dam failure. GLOFs often result in catastrophic flooding downstream, with major geomorphic and socio economic impacts .

GLOFs have three main features:

  • They involve sudden release of water.
  • They tend to be rapid events, lasting hours to days.
  • They result in large downstream river discharge


Q.18 Match List-I with List-II

List-I      (Geomorphic Hazards)      List-II (Areas of Occurrence)
(a) Faulting (i) krakatos Earthquake (1883)
(b) Vulcanicity (ii) Greece Earthquake (1931)
(c) Hydrostatic pressure (iii) Gujarat Earthquake (2001)
(d) Plate movement (iv) California Earthquake (1906)

Choose the correct option from those given below:

  1. (a)- (ii); (b)-(iii); (c)-(iv); (d)-(i)
  2. (a)-(i); (b)-(ii); (c)-(iii); (d)-(iv)
  3. (a)-(iii); (b)-(iv); (c)-(i); (d)-(ii)
  4. (a)-(iv); (b)-(i), (c)-(ii); (d)-(iii)


Q.19 Which of the following avalanches are most destructive in nature?

  1. Loose snow
  2. Slab
  3. Powder snow
  4. Wet snow

Q.20 San Andreas Fault represents which of the following?

  1. Benioff zone
  2. Constructive margin of the plate
  3. Destructive margin of the plate
  4. Conservative margin of the plate


Q.21 In a fold if both limbs are parallel as well as horizontal to each other, it would be a case of which of the following types of fold?

  1. Isocline
  2. Recumbent
  3. Open
  4. Closed

Q.22 The direction of dip in reference of strike is always at which of the following angles?

  1. Acute angle
  2. Obtuse angle
  3. Right angle
  4. Straight angle

Q.23 Down-warping is produced on account of which of the following actions?

  1. Crustal fracture
  2. Crustal bending
  3. Submergence
  4. Emergence

Q.24 Which of the followingis not a part of Circum-Pacific Volcanic belt?

  1. Aleutian islands
  2. Mindanao island
  3. Azores islands
  4. Sakhalin island


Aleutian islands – Alaska (U.S.A)

Mindanao Islands- Philippines

Azores Islands – Portugal

Sakhalin Island – Russia

25. The constructive magrin of lithospheric plates is presented by which of the following?

  1. Ural mountains
  2. Mariana trench
  3. Indo-Gangetic plain
  4. Mid-Atlantic ridge


26. Match List I with List II and choose the correct answer from the code given below

 List I                                   List II

(Name of Author)               (Name of Book)

(a) Steers                           (i) Geomorphology

(b) Von Richthofen           (ii) The Unstable Earth

(c) Wooldridge                 (iii) Principles of Geomorphology

(d) Thornbury                   (iv) Spirit and Purpose of Geography


  1. (a)-(ii), (b)-(i), (c)-(iv), (d)-(iii)
  2. (a)-(iii), (b)-(ii), (C)-(i), (d)-(iv)
  3. (a)-(i), (b)-(iv), (c)-(iii), (d)-(ii)
  4. (a)-(iv), (b)-(ii), (c)-(ii), (d)-(i)


27. Conrad discontinuity is found between

  1. Upper mantle and Lower mantle
  2. Outer and Inner core
  3. Sial and Sima
  4. Sima and Nife


Crust: continental crust made of SIAL (silicon & aluminum), oceanic crust made of SIMA (silicon & magnesium)

Conard discontinuity – Between upper crust and lower crust (Sial – Sima)

Mohrovicic Discontinuity– Between lower crust and upper mantle

Mantle: Iron, nickel, chromium, magnesium & silicon

Repetti Discontinuity- Between upper mantle and lower mantle

Weichert Gutenberg Discontinuity – Between lower  and outer core

Core: made of nickel & iron

Lehman discontinuity– Between outer core and inner core

28.  The upper part of the mantle upon which the crust of the Earth floats is known as

  1. Hydrosphere
  2. Mesosphere
  3. Asthenosphere
  4. Barysphere

The asthenosphere is the highly viscous, mechanically weak and ductile region of the upper mantle of the Earth.

29. Which one of the following groups of topographical features is the product of erosional process?

  1. Moraine, Barchan, Pinnacle, Wave-built platform
  2. Cirque, Arete, Playa, Stack
  3. Eskers, Fiords, V-shaped valley, Seifs
  4. Levees, Stalagmites, Monadnocks, Drumlins


30. Which of the following groups of scholars stressed on the role of lateral erosion by streams in the formation of pediments?

  1. Paige, Blackwelder, Johnson
  2. Paige, Johnson, Lawson
  3. McGee, Paige, Blackwelder
  4. McGee, Blackwelder, Johnson


Q.31 Given below are two statements, one is labelled as Assertion (A) and the other is labelled as Reason (R), Read the statements and choose the correct answer using the code given below

Assertion (A): Plate margins and volcanic zones are closely related with each other.

Reason (R): Most of the volcanic zones are located along convergent plate boundaries.


  1. (A) is false, but (R) is true.
  2. (A) is true, but (R) is false.
  3. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
  4. Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).


Q.32 Which of the following features is formed due to tectonic forces?

  1. Hanging valley
  2. Rift valley
  3. Blind valley
  4. U-shaped valley



A rift valley is a linear shaped lowland between several highlands or mountain ranges created by the action of a geologic rift or fault. A rift valley is formed on a divergent plate boundary, a crustal extension or spreading apart of the surface, which is subsequently further deepened by the forces of erosion

33.  Which one of the following rocks is associated with “Cratons”?

  1. Conglomerate
  2. Phyllite
  3. Slate
  4. Granite


Cratons are generally found in the interiors of continents and are characteristically composed of ancient crystalline basement crust of lightweight felsic igneous rock such as granite. They have a thick crust and deep roots that extend into the mantle beneath to depths of 200 km.


34. The Two Cycle Theory on the origin of limestone caverns was proposed by

  1. Davis
  2. Gardner
  3. Malott
  4. Swinerton



35. The concept of geosyncline was propounded by:

(1) Holmes

(2) James Hutton

(3) Hall and Dana

(4) J.W. Powell


36. Gutenberg discontinuity is found between the:

(1) Crust and mantle

(2) Mantle and core

(3) Upper Core and Lower Core

(4) Upper Mantle and Lower Mantle


37. The concept of panplain was propagated by:

(1) C.A. Cotton

(2) Von Ricthofen

(3) Crickmay

(4) Alfred Von Wegener


Peneplain: W.M Davis

Endrumpf: W. Penck

Panplain: C.H Crickmay

Pediplain: L.C King

Etchplain: Pugh &  Thomas

Panfan: A.C Lawson


38. The direction of a horizontal line on an inclined rock strata is termed as:

(1) Strike

(2) Dip

(3) Anticline

(4) Free face

39. Peternoster Lakes are:

(1) Lakes formed on glacialstair ways

(2) Lakes having volcanic origin

(3) Lakes formed by a shallow stretch of water caused by sea erosion

(4) Cresent shaped lakes formed due to cut-off of a river meander


40. “The present is the key to the past.” This phase is related to the concept of:

(1) Isostasy

(2) Diastrophism

(3) Plate tectonics

(4) Uniformatarianism


41. Which one of the following types of plate boundaries and motions are exemplified by the San Andreas Faultr of California?

(1) Transform boundary with sinistral motion

(2) Transform boundary with dextral motion

(3) Divergent boundary with sinistral motion

(4) Convergent boundary with dextral motion


42. Which one of the followings is the main source for a vast reservoir of relatively inert nitrogen in homosphere?

(1) Volcanic activities

(2) Fossil fuel burning

(3) Acid rain

(4) Global warming


43. In which of the following directions the Nazca Plate is moving?

(1) East

(2) West

(3) South

(4) North


44. Which one of the following groups of natural elements in living matters make up more than 99% of Earth’s biomass?

(1) H, O, C

(2) N, CA, K

(3) H, CA, N

(4) S, H, Na


45. Which one of the following phenomena plays a vital role in the dispersion of majestic dinosaurs?

(1) Volcanic eruption

(2) Zonal faulting

(3) Global cooling

(4) Continental drift


46. The Hydraulic Slope Theory was propunded by:

(1) R.E. Horton

(2) Darwin

(3) Penck

(4) Mallot



47. ‘Mohorovicic discontinuity’ marks the boundary between:

(1) Continental Shelf and Ocean crust

(2) Asthenosphere and lithosphere

(3) Crust and the upper mantle

(4) Core and the mantle

48. The process in which one plate slides beneath another is known as:

(1) Advection

(2) Subduction

(3) Convergence

(4) Convection

49. San Andreas Fault is a:

(1) Transform fault

(2) Converging fault

(3) Spreading fault

(4) Submergent fault

50. Which one of the following is a fluvio-glacial deposit?

(1) Pediplain

(2) Kame terrace

(3) Floodplain

(4) Loess plains



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