Part 6 of 100 PYQS from Theories & Models in Geography for UGC NET

Part 6 of 100 PYQS from Theories & Models in Geography for UGC NET

100 PYQS OF MODELS AND THEORIES FOR UGC NET EXAM, THEORIES AND MODELS IN GEOGRAPHY NOTES, MODEL IN GEOGRAPHY STUDY MATERIAL, THEORIES AND MODELS PYQS, 

(PDF) For download pdf file of Theories & Models 100 PYQS  – – go to the bottom of this post.

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Q.68. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

List-I  

(a) Central Place Theory        

(b) Multiple Nuclei Theory   

(c) The Law of Retail Trade Gravitation       

(d) Breaking Point Theory

 

List-II

(i) Land use pattern in large cities developed around a number of discrete centres rather than a single centre

(ii) Position of the breaking point between two towns

(iii) Hexagonal Service Area

(iv) Residential belt of considerable density surrounding the C.B.D

            

Codes:

      (a) (b) (c) (d)

(1) (i) (iv) (iii) (ii)

(2) (iii) (i) (ii) (iv)

(3) (iii) (i) (iv) (ii)

(4) (iv) (ii) (iii) (i)

Answer: 3

Q.69. Match List – I with List – II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

List – I  (Geographer) 

(a) Philbrick               

(b) Christaller             

(c) Losch                    

(d) Smith         

 

List- II (Theory/Model)

(i) Industrial Location

(ii) Economic Landscape

(iii) Central Place

(iv) Areal functional organization

                

Codes:

     (a)   (b)   (c)   (d)

(1) (i)   (ii)   (iii) (iv)

(2) (iv) (iii)   (i)   (ii)

(3) (iv) (iii)   (ii)   (i)

(4) (i)   (ii)   (iv)  (iii)

Answer: 2

Philbrick      – Areal functional organization

Christaller   –   Central Place

Losch          –   Industrial Location

Smith         –    Economic Landscape

 

 

Q.70. The ‘Mobility Transition Model’ of migration was given by:

(1) Clark, W.A.V.

(2) Lee, E

(3) Ravenstein

(4) Zelinsky, W

Answer: 4

Mobility Transition Model of Zelinsky (1971)

 

CBSE UGC NET June 2015

Q.71. Von Thunen Agricultural locational theory is bases on:

(1) Empirical Approach

(2) Normative Approach

(3) Deductive Approach

(4) Behavioral Approach

Answer: 2

Q.72. Which one of the following authors has given the concept of “Demand cone” as shown in the diagram? 

(1) Pareto

(2) August Losch

(3) Christaller

(4) Weber  

Answer: 2

Q.73. Match List- I with List-II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

List-I (Authors)        

(a) Weber       

(b) Smith        

(c) Hotelling   

(d) Hoover     

 

List – II  (Theory)

(i) Minimum production cost

(ii) Maximum profit

(iii) Minimum transport cost

(iv) Market competition

 

Codes:

(a) (b) (c) (d)
(1) (iii)  (ii)     (iv)     (i)   
(2) (i)  (ii)     (iii)     (iv)   
(3) (iii)  (iv)     (i)     (ii)   
(4) (i)  (ii)     (iv)     (iii)   

Answer: 1

Expanation:

Weber     – Minimum transport cost

Smith      – Maximum profit

Hotelling – Market competition

Hoover    – Minimum production cost

E M. Hoover Model:

Edgar Hoover in 1937 published a study of the shoe and leather industries and in 1948 gave his first theoretical statement in his book – ‘The location of Economic Activity’.

His work ‘Location theory and the shoe and Leather industries’ contain both a theoretical statement and two major case studies.

His main aim was to investigate the area served by each producing point (point of production/extraction)

Assumptions:

(1) There is perfect competition between producers or sellers at any one location.

(2) There is perfect mobility of factors of production.

(3) The transportation costs and production or extraction costs are the determinants of location.

(4) Buyers are ‘economic men’, i.e. they obtained the commodity from their source that offers the lowest delivered price.

(5) Transport cost vary with distance.

 

Principle: Hoover’s theory is based on delivered prices. The delivered prices to any buyer will be the cost of production/extraction plus transport cost. This is represented by isotims lines joining places of equal delivered price. Hoover considers extractive price first, where the locations of the deposits are given and attempts to find the area that each producing point will serve. There is a given point where extraction takes place. If the cost of extraction does not vary with output, the transport costs are the only variable affecting price. But it will be also affected by diminishing returns scale.

Hoover argues that extractive industries characteristically operate in a situation where average cost rises with increased production as the market area gets larger. This effect is shown Figure.

And for Manufacturing industries, the cost of production decreases with rising output, thus the margin line will fall increasing distance from the production point. This is because output raises as the market area is enlarged to create economics of scale. When the point of diminishing return is eventually reached, the margin line will turn upwards.

 

Harold Hotelling’s Theory

An early attempt to explain industrial location through the profit motive was made by Harold Hotelling (1929).

In his theory, the impact of demand was considered together with the idea of locational interdependences, whereby firms in perfect competition arrange themselves spatially for mutual sales benefits.

This theory deals with the impact of demand considered together with the idea of locational interdependence, whereby firms in perfect competition arrange themselves spatially for mutual sales.

Hotelling developed a classic location strategy that two firms might follow.

Assumptions

It is presumed that:

  1. Production costs are identical for two firms.
  2. The product price is uniform.
  3. The firms are free to move and sell identical products to a market providing consistent demand.
  4. Price varies with respect to distance from the factory.
  5. The sellers can each relocate without extra cost and would each be able to supply the whole market.
  6. A perfectly competitive market exists in the area and no firms act in collusion with one another but local monopoly exists (whereby each seller totally dominates his own market).
  7. Consumers are evenly, linearly distributed, and have totally unelastic demand and will visit to the nearest centre for purchases.
  8. All customers purchase the same quantity of goods.

Q.74. Whose theory did propagate that ‘an area is poor because it is poor’:

(1) Myrdal

(2) Berry

(3) Hirschman

(4) Boudeville

Answer: 1

Cumulative Causation theory Gunnar Myrdal (1956)

 

Q.75. Which of the urban structure models labelled three areas: (1) The city of death, (2) the city of need and (3) the city of superfluity

(1) Exploitive model of urban structure

(2) Multiple nuclei

(3) Sector model

(4) Social area analysis model

Answer: 1

Exploitive model of urban structure by William Bunge

The exploitative model divides the city into three semi-circular concentric zones on the basis of ownership of resources and ability to pay.

It clearly shows how money flows from inner-city to outward zones towards affluent urban sections.

This model was developed along the Detroit River.

He formulated three semi-circular concentric zones as follows:

(1) The city of death

(2) The city of need

(3) ‘The city of superfluity

 

Q.76. Which one of the following is correct sequence of urban land uses in respect of ab, bc and cd as per given graph? Image of Correct Sequence of Urban Land

(1) Industrial, Residential and Commercial

(2) Commercial, Residential and Industrial

(3) Commercial, Industrial and Residential

(4) Residential, Commercial and Industrial

Answer: 2

Q.77. Whittlesey classified agricultural systems of the world. How many agricultural systems were identified by him?

(1) 10

(2) 19

(3) 14

(4) 13

Answer: 4

 

Q.78. Which one of the following is the propounder of the shown model? 

 

(1) Zelinsky’s Mobility Model

(2) Rely’s Modelvof Migration

(3) Gosal Model of Migration

(4) Lee’s Model of Migration 

Answer: 4

UGC NET December 2014

Q.79. Match the following List – I with List – II and select the correct Answer from the codes given

List – I (Authors)     

  1. Christaller  
  2. Galphin      
  3. Losch         
  4. Weber

List – II (Settlements)

  1. Market Centres
  2. Industrial Nodes
  3. Central Places
  4. Rurban Centres

Codes:

A

B

C

D

(A)

iii

iv

i

ii

(B)

iv

iii

ii

i

(C)

i

ii

iii

iv

(D)

ii

i

iv

iii

Answer: A

Q.80. Q. Which one of the following is the correct sequence of stages of urban development as postulated by Lewis Mumford?

  1. Polis
  2. Ecopolis

iii. Megalopolis

  1. Metropolis

(1) ii, i, iv, iii

(2) i, ii, iii, iv

(3) iii, iv, ii, i

(4) iv, iii, i, ii

Answer: 1

Stages of Urban Development by Lewis Mumford

As a physical entity, social phenomena, technological advancement, cultural ties and historical evolution Lewis Mumford considered the stages of growth of towns as follows

(i) Ecopolis: A small town of village origin based on agriculture, mining and fishing.

(ii) Polis: Market town with wholesale grain market.

(iii) Metropolis: It is a large city with 10 lakhs of population.

(iv) Megapolis: When main cities and metropolis coalesce to form a giant urban centre.

(v) Tyranopolis: In this country wide urbanization predominated the scene. Here the

display and expense become the measurement of culture.

(vi) Nekropolis: It is known as ghost city or dead city. This stage come due to war,

famine, diseases, decay of culture.

 

Q.81. Match the following List – I with List – II and select the correct answer from the codes given:

List – I (Planners)

List – II (Contributions)

A. Howard

 i. Neighbourhood idea

B. Perry

 ii. Conurbation

C. Geddes

iii. Radiant city

D. Corbuser

iv. Garden city

 Codes:

A

B

C

D

(1)

iv

iii

ii

i

(2)

iii

iv

i

ii

(3)

iv

i

ii

iii

(4)

iii

ii

i

iv

Answer: 3

 

Q.82. Q. Match the following List – I with List – II and select the correct answer from the codes given:

List – I (Ackerman-Population Resource Region)

List II (Name of the countries)

A. U.S. type

i. India

B. Europe type

ii. Malaysia

C. Brazilian type

iii. Australia

D. Egyptian type

iv. South Korea

Codes:

A

B

C

D

(1)

i

ii

iii

iv

(2)

iii

iv

ii

i

(3)

ii

i

iv

iii

(4)

iv

iii

ii

i

Answer: 2

Q.83. Who propounded the Heartland Theory used in political geography?

(A) Alfred Mackinder

(B) O.H.K. Spate

(C) Arthur Geddes

(D) J.A. Steers

Answer: A

CBSE UGC NET June 2014

Q.84. Given below are two statements, one laballed as Assertion (A) and the other labelled as Reason (R). Select your answer from the codes given below:

 Assertion (A): Losch’s model is less restrictive than Christoller’s.

Reason (R): Losch treated each function as having a separate range, threshold and hexagonal hinterland.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanations of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is true but (R) is false.

(D) (A) is false but (R) is true.

Answer: A

 

Q.85. What are the three bases for spatial interaction as described in Edward Ullman’s model?

(A) Complementarity, Transferability and intervening opportunities

(B) Complementarity, commodity specific relationship and surplus deficit relationship

(C) Complimentarity, convenience and residential neighborhood

(D) Human behavior, convenience and transferability

Answer: A

 

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