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Q.41. Which one of the following is closely associated with westerlies?

(A) Furious fifties

(B) Boyle’s gas law

(C) Walker circulation

(D) Rossby waves

Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:

(1) (A) and (B) only

(2) (B) and (C) only

(3) (C) and (D) only

(4) (A) and (D) only

Answer: 4

Q.42. Identify the terms associated with ozone measurement

(A) Dobson

(B) Spectrophotometer

(C) Pyranometer

(D) Planimeter

(E) Anemometer

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(1) (A) and (B) only

(2) (B) and (C) only

(3) (A) and (C) only

(4) (D) and (E) only

Answer: 1

  • Dobson- Measurement unit for determining the total amount of ozone present in a vertical column of air above the surface of the earth.
  • Spectrophotometer- Dobson spectrophotometers can be used to measure both total column ozone and profiles of ozone in the atmosphere.
  • Pyranometer – A pyranometer is an instrument used to measure the amount of solar radiation (power) the sun produces in a specific location
  • Planimeter – A planimeter is a table-top instrument for measuring areas, usually the areas of irregular regions on a map or photograph.
  • Anemometer – An anemometer is an instrument that measures wind speed.


Q.43. The most accurate representation of culture units are given below, Arrange them from highest to lowest

(A) Complex

(B) Realm

(C) Region

(D) Trait

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(1) (B), (C), (A), (D)

(2) (B), (D), (A), (C)

(3) (C), (A), (D), (B)

(4) (B), (C), (D), (A)

Answer: 1

Cultural Realms

  • A set of cultural regions that have related cultural complexes and landscapes may be grouped together to form a cultural realm.
  • Cultural regions showing related cultural complexes and landscapes.
  • It is the largest possible area of cultural influence. It is a wider concept and includes overlaps and transitional areas. It can be discontinuous.

Cultural Regions

  • A cultural region is a physical space occupied by population that have recognizable and distinctive cultural characteristics

Culture Complex

  • Culture complexes are clusters of interrelated cultural traits, related sets of cultural traits descriptive of one aspect of a society’s behavior.

Cultural traits-

  • Cultural traits are the single elements or smallest units of a culture. They are the building blocks of the complex behavioral patterns of distinctive groups of people. They are “units of observation” which when put together constitute culture. According to Hoebel, a cultural trait is “a repeatedly irreducible unit of learned behaviour pattern or material product there of.” Any culture includes thousands of such units.
  • Cultural parameter that specify learned behaviour.

Q.44. Which one of the following is vastly absorbed by the ocean surface?

(1) Visible wave radiation

(2) Medium wave radiation

(3) long wave radiation

(4) Ultra-violet wave radiation

Answer: 3

Q.45. Which one of the following are considered while preparing future population projections?

(1) Crude death rates and their temporal changes

(2) Rate of population increase and future assumptions of death and bath rates past data

(3) General fertility rates and their temporal changes

(4) Age and sex composition rates and their temporal changes

Answer: 2

Population Projections

  • In 1835, a French mathematician Quetelet propounded a theory about population projection.
  • Basically, there are three techniques for population projection: Mathematical Method, Economic Method, and Cohort Component Method.
  • The mathematical method is frequently used for the estimation of population.
  • It is done for a short period i.e. less than 10 years.
  • Mathematical Method: It is neither an adequate nor a complete method of population projection to give information regarding age group.
  • The projection is done on the axiomatic assumption that the demographic projection of the future is based on the growth rate of the past and that the prevailing situation will remain in the future too.
  • It is thus not a real index of either the future or past trends of the population.

Q.46. In concentric zone model, the correct order of zones from city core to periphery in

(A) Low-Class residential

(B) Whole sale light manufacturing


(D) Medium class residential

Choose the correct answer from the options given below

(1) (A), (B, (C), (D)

(2) (B), (C), (D), (A)

(3) (C), (B), (A), (D)

(4) (D), (B), (C), (A)

Answer: 3

(A) Wedge or Sectoral Model – by Homer Hoyt and M R Davis (1939)

Postulated in 1939

Based on: Study of 64 American Cities.

5 Sectors

  1. Central Business District (CBD)
  2. Wholesale & Light Manufacturing
  3. Low-class residential
  4. Middle-class residential
  5. High class residential

(B) Multiple Nuclei Model by C.D Harris & E.L Ullman (1945)

Postulated – 1945

Based on: Chicago city

9 Discrete Centres of Nuclei

  1. Central Business District (CBD)
  2. Wholesale and Light Manufacturing
  3. Low class Residential
  4. Middle class Residential
  5. High class Residential
  6. Heavy Manufacturing
  7. Outlying Business District
  8. Residential Suburb
  9. Industrial Suburb


(C) Concentric Zone Model – E.W. Burgess (1924)

  • Concentric zone model of urban land use proposed by E.W. Burgess in 1924
  • Different Name – ‘ecological theory of city structure’, the Bull’s Eye Model, the Concentric Ring Model, Concentric Circles Model.
  • Model Based- Chicago City (America)

5 Zones:

  1. Central Business District
  2. Zone in Transition
  3. Zone of Independent Workmen’s Home:
  4. Zone of Better Residence
  5. Commuter’s Zone


Q.47. Which of the following statements are correct about the state of Himachal Pradesh in India?

(A) High potentialities for hydro-power generation

(B) High literacy

(C) High potentialities of horticulture development

(D) Rich in mineral resources

(E) High proportion of table land

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(1) (A). (B), (E) only

(2) (A), (B), (D) only

(3) (C), D), (E) only

(4) (A), (B), (C) only

Answer: 4

Q.48. The agricultural activities from the city centre to the periphery propounded by Von Thunen: Arrange it

(A) Grain farming

(B) Market Gardening

(C) Three fold system

(D) Firewood and lumbering product

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(1) (D), (B), (A), (C)

(2) (A), (B), (C), (D)

(3) (C), (D), (A), (B)

(4) (B), (D), (A), (C)

Answer: 4

Von Thunen’s Model of Land Use Planning /Agricultural land use/ Location theory (1826)

Von Thunen recognized six concentric zonal rings

Zone I – Market Gardening and Milk Production

Zone II – Firewood and Lumber Production

Zone III – Crop Framing without Fallow

Zone IV – Crop Farming, Fallow and Pastures

Zone V – Three Field System

Zone VI – Livestock Farming

Q.49. Match List I with List II

List I


(A) Photosphere

(B) Maunder minimum


(D) Pollen Grain

List II


(I) Sunspot

(II) Solar irradiance

(III) Palynology

(IV) Formation of layers of pollutants

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

             (A)       (B)       (C)       (D)

(1)        II         III        IV        I

(2)        II         I           IV        III

(3)        II         IV        I           III

(4)        II         I           III        IV

Answer: 2


  • Solar irradiance
  • The photosphere is the lowest layer of the solar atmosphere. It is essentially the solar “surface” that we see when we look at the Sun in “white” light.
  • Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation as measured in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.

 (B) Maunder minimum:


The Maunder Minimum, also known as the “prolonged sunspot minimum”, was a period around 1645 to 1715 during which sunspots became exceedingly rare.

 (C) ABC:

Formation of layers of pollutants

The Indian Ocean brown cloud or Asian brown cloud is a layer of air pollution that recurrently covers parts of South Asia, namely the northern Indian Ocean, India, and Pakistan. Viewed from satellite photos, the cloud appears as a giant brown stain hanging in the air over much of South Asia and the Indian Ocean every year between January and March, possibly also during earlier and later months. The term was coined in reports from the UNEP Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX)

(D) Pollen Grain

  • Palynology
  • Each pollen grain is a minute body, of varying shape and structure, formed in the male structures of seed-bearing plants and transported by various means (wind, water, insects, etc.) to the female structures, where fertilization occurs
  • Palynology is the study of plant pollen, spores and certain microscopic plankton organisms (collectively termed palynomorphs) in both living and fossil form


Q.50. Hydraulic Slope Theory is Given by

(1) C. Darwin

(2) W.M. Davis

(3) W.Penck

(4) R.E. Harton

Answer: 4

  • Hydraulic Slope Theory: E. Harton (1945)
  • Slope Decline Theory: W.M. Davis
  • Slope Replacement Theory: W.Penck
  • Parallel Retreat Theory: L.C King
  • Slope evolution (Hillside Slope) : Alan Wood
  • Slope Development: Strahler


Q.51. Which one of the following group of states/UT recorded more than 30 percent of urban population according to census 2011 data?

(1) Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Chhattisgarh, Haryana

(2) Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Punjab

(3) Tripura, Kerala, Punjab, Chhattisgarh

(4) Sikkim, Kerala, Punjab, Goa

Answer: 2

  • Gujarat: 42.6
  • Tamil Nadu: 4
  • Kerala: 7
  • Punjab: 48

% of Urban Population Share State/UT Wise Census 2011

State/UT Urban Population %
1. Jammu and Kashmir 26.11
2. Himachal Pradesh 10.03
3. Punjab 37.48
4. Chandigarh 97.25
5. Uttarakhand 30.23
6. Haryana 34.88
7. NCT of Delhi 37.5
8. Rajasthan 24.87
9. Uttar Pradesh 22.27
10. Bihar 11.29
11. Sikkim 25.15
12. Arunachal Pradesh 22.94
13. Nagaland 28.86
14. Manipur 30.21
15. Mizoram 52.11
16. Tripura 26.17
17. Meghalaya 20.07
18. Lakshadweep 78.07
19. Assam 14.1
20. Jharkhand 24.05
21. Odisha 16.69
22. Chhatisgarh 23.24
23. Madhya Pradesh 27.63
24. Gujarat 42.6
25. Daman & Diu 58.43
26. Dadra & Nagar Haveli 58.43
27. Maharashtra 45.22
28. Andhra Pradesh 29.47
29. Karnataka 50..78
30. Goa 62.17
31. Lakshadweep  
32. Kerala 47.7
33. Tamil Nadu 48.4
34. Puducherry 68.33
35. Andaman & Nicobar Island 37.7
36. West Bengal 31.87
37. Telengana 38.88
38. Ladakh 84
India 31.16


Q.52. Which one of the following refers to a relationship between a cultural group and natural environment?

(1) Cultural ecology

(2) Cultural convergence

(3) Cultural diffusion

(4) Cultural hearth

Answer: 1

Cultural ecology:

  • Cultural ecology is the study of the adaptation of a culture to a specific environment and how changes in that environment lead to changes in that specific culture.
  • Cultural ecology is the study of human adaptations to social and physical environments.
  • Human adaptation refers to both biological and cultural processes that enable a population to survive and reproduce within a given or changing environment. This may be carried out diachronically, or synchronically.


Convergence culture:

  • Convergence culture is a theory that recognizes changing relationships and experiences with new media. Henry Jenkins is accepted by media academics to be the father of the term with his book Convergence Culture: Where Old and new media collide.


Cultural diffusion:

  • Cultural diffusion is the spreading out and merging of pieces from different cultures.
  • These different cultures all have many diverse types of food, clothing, and even languages that people love and enjoy every day.
  • The definition of cultural diffusion is the spread of the beliefs and social activities of one culture to different ethnicities, religions, nationalities, etc.
  • An example of cultural diffusion is the tradition of the German Christmas pickle becoming popular in the United States.


Culture Hearths: Culture Hearths are the centers of origin of ancient civilizations which continue to inspire and influence modern societies of the world today. ​

Q.53. Given below are two statements: One is labelled as Assertion (A) and the other is labelled as Reason (R)

Assertion (A): Ford is not a suitable location for a port.

Reason (R): Fiords are drowned glaciated valleys with narrow deep channels along the coast.

In the light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:

(1) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

(2) Both (A) and (R) are correct but (R) is NOT the correct explanation of (A)

(3) (A) is correct but (R) is not correct

(4) (A) is not correct but (R) is correct

Answer: 1

  • Drowned glaciated valleys in high latitude regions are known as Fjords.
  • Fjords are found in locations where current or past glaciation extended below current sea level. A fjord is formed when a glacier retreats, after carving its typical U-shaped valley, and the sea fills the resulting valley floor.


Q.54. Which of the following statements are correct about sea water

(A) The density of sea water depends upon temperature, pressure and salinity

(B) Convergence of water has no effect on density

(C) The thermal expansion of water varies with the increase and decrease of temperature

(D) In the middle latitudes, due to an excess of precipitation the density is higher

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(1) (A) and (D) only

(2) (A) and (C) only

(3) (B) and (C) only

(4) (C) and (D) only

Answer: 2


Q.55. Which one of the following exert maximum tide producing force on the ocean water?

(1) Sun

(2) Moon

(3) Venus

(4) Mars

Answer: 2


Q.56. Given below are two statements:

Statement I: The process in which one plate slides beneath another plate is zone of convergence

Statement II: Sea floor spreading becomes more prominent along the zone of convergences

In the light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(1) Both Statement and Statement II are true

(2) Both Statement I and Statement II are false

(3) Statement I is true but Statement II is false

(4) Statement I is false but Statement II is true

Answer: 2


Q.57. As the wave approach coast, the wave form changes radically. Which one of the following is correct sequence of changes?

(A) Closely spaced crests

(B) Wave breaker

(C) Swash

(D) Back wash

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(1) (B), (C), (A), (D)

(2) (A), (D), (C), (B)

(C), (B), (D), (A)

(4) (A), (B), (C), (D)

Answer: 4

Q.58. Match List I with List II:

List I


(A) Gurusikhar

(B) Dodabeta

(C) Armakonda

(D) Dhupgarh

List II


(I) Nilgiri

(II) Eastern Ghats

(III) Satpura

(IV) Aravalli

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

             (A)       (B)       (C)       (D)

(1)        II         IV        III        I

(2)        IV        I           II         III

(3)        II         IV        I           III

(4)        IV        II         I           III

Answer: 2


Q.59. Which of the following food stuff consume highest amount of water?

(1) Rice

(3) Beef

(3) Chocolate

(4) Banana

Answer: 3

Q.60. ‘Save the Silent Valley’ movement, a social movement to save the tropical green forest from destruction for a regional development project was territorially based in Indian State of-

(1) West Bengal

(2) Bihar

(3) Kerala

(4) Gujarat

Answer: 3

  • Silent Valley Movement was a movement against the state to protect Silent valley, an evergreen tropical forest in the Palakkad district of Kerala, India. It was started in 1973 to save the Silent Valley Reserve Forest from being flooded by a hydroelectric project.
  • In 1970 the Kerala State Electricity Board (KSEB) proposes a hydroelectric dam across the Kunthipuzha River that runs through Silent Valley, that will submerge 8.3 sq km of untouched moist evergreen forest. Arguments it makes for the Silent Valley Hydroelectric Project (SVPH):
  • It will generate electricity for the state of Kerala with the installation of four units of 60 MW each. (The KSEB avers that the state’s electricity requirements will not be met without this additional power).
  • Irrigate an additional 100 sq km in the Mallapuram and Palghat districts.
  • Provide employment to several thousand people during the construction phase and boost the economy of the state.


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