Geographical Thought Most Important Questions Part 1 for NTA UGC NET

Geographical Thought Most Important / Expected Questions Part 1 (1-15) for NTA UGC NET 2023 

(PDF) For download pdf file of GEOGRAPHICAL THOUGHT Important MCQS Part 1 (1-15) – – go to the bottom of this post.


Q.1. The term geography was coined by –

(A) Hipparchus

(B) Herodotus

(C) Eratosthenes

(D) Posidonius

Answer: C


Eratosthenes (276-194 BC)

[1] Eratosthenes was a Greek mathematician, geographer, astronomer

[2] First scientific Geographer

[3] The term geography was first coined by Eratosthenese. [geo (earth) and graphos (description)].

[4] Father of Geography but original father of Geography is Hecateaeus

[5] Father of Geodesy

[6] He adopted view of Aristotle & regarded the shape of the earth as sphere.

[7] He developed systems of latitudes and longitudes

[8] He measure accurate length of equator

[9] Circumferences of the earth by Eratosthenes 25000 miles, but actual 24860 miles

[10] The book written by him describes the ekumene (inhabited) world.


Q.2. The term ‘ecumene’ is applied to mean:

(A) The areas temporarily settled by people.

(B) The permanently inhabited areas of the earth’s surface.

(C) The uninhabited areas of the world.

(D) The areas deserted by people.

 Answer: B


Q.3. Who is known as Father of Geography?

(A) Anaximander

(B) Hippurcus

(C) Herodotus

(D) Hecateaeus

Answer: D


Hecateaeus (the Father of Geography) (550 BC – 476 BC)

[1] He is known as Father of Geography.

[2] His main book is Ges-Periods (Description of the Earth)

[3] He was the first writer of Greek prose.

[4] His work Periplus (Greek word) meaning coastal survey.

[5] He divided world into two parts: (i) Europa, and (ii) Libya (Africa including Asia).

[6] For the first time he gave two approaches for the study of Geography– a. Nomothetic (Law making) b. Idiographic (Descriptive)

[7] Earth is a circular plane.


Q.4. Iliad and Odyssey were written by

(A) Aristotle

(B) Homer

(C) Thales

(D) Anaximander

Answer: B


Homer: (750BC – 700 BC)

[1] Homer was a great Greek poet

[2] His work ‘Illiad’ & ‘Odessey’ – epic Poems (Describes Trojan War)

[3] Shape of Earth – circular form, surrounded on all the sides by Ocean River.

[4] He describes four winds:

[a] Bores (north wind) – cool wind with clear skies;

[b] Eurus (east wind) – warm and gentle;

[c] Notus (south wind) – an indication of advancing storm; and

[d] Zephyrus (west wind) – dreaded, balmy with gale force.


Q.5. Who are recognized as the founder of mathematical geography?

(A) Hecateaus and Herototous

(B) Homer and Aristotle

(C) Hecateous and Eratosthenes

(D) Thales and Anaximander

Answer: D


Thales: (624 BC – 545 BC)

[1] Thales was the first Greek thinker, philosopher, and traveller.

[2] Developed several basic theorems of geometry.

[3] Earth is disc/flat shape.

[4] Remembered for Cosmology based on water as the essence of all matter and prediction of an eclipse of the Sun.

[5] Thales and Anaximander are generally considered as the founder of Mathematical Geography


Q.6. Which of the following is remembered for prediction of an eclipse of the Sun and cosmology based on water? (DEC 2022 / MARCH 2023)

(1) Thales

(2) Homer

(3) Anaximander

(4) Hecataeus

Answer: 1


Q.7. Named the first geographer prepared a world map to scale

(A) Thales

(B) Herodotus

(C) Ptolemy

(D) Anaximander

Answer: D


Anaximander (610 BC – 546 BC)

[1] Anaximander was disciple/student of Thales.

[2] He introduced Babylonian instrument known as Gnomon. (used to measure the length and direction of the shadow of the vertical pole)

[3] He prepared first map of the world to scale.

[4] His map was circular and bounded on all sides by ocean river.

[5] Often called as Father of Cosmology and Founder of Astronomy.

[6] Latitude and longitude term coined by him.

[7] Thales and Anaximander are generally considered as the founder of Mathematical Geography


Q.8. The Babylonian instrument Gnomon was first time used by

(A) Anaximander

(B) Herodotus

(C) Thales

(D) Homer

Answer: A



Q.9. Who was the first geographer to divide the circle into 360 degrees?

(A) Eratosthenes

(B) Herodotus

(C) Hipparchus

(D) Ptolemy

Answer: C


Hipparchus (190-120 BC)

[1] He is considered as the founder of trigonometry

[2] Invented instrument Astrolabe for determining latitudes and longitudes

[3] He was the first to divide the circle into 360 degree.

[4] Credited for conversion of three-dimensional sphere into two dimensional plane  

[5] Designed orthographic and stereographic projections. These projections show only a hemisphere, not whole Earth.


Q.10. The orthographic and stereographic projections were designed by

(A) Anaximander

(B) Ptolemy

(C) Posidonius

(D) Hipparchus

Answer: D



Q.11. The instrument Astrolabe was invented by

(A) Anaximander

(B) Hipparchus

(C) Ptolemy

(D) Eratosthenes

Answer: B


Q.12. Who among the following pleaded that history be treated geographically and geography be treated historically?

(A) Homer

(B) Thales

(C) Hecataeus

(D) Herodotus

Answer: (D)

Herodotus (The Father of History) (485-425 BC):

[1] He is regarded as Father of History.

[2] Ethnographer

[3] He advocated that ‘All history must be treated geographically and all geography must be treated historically.’

[4] First Scholar to draw a meridian in the world map

[5] First scholar who regarded Caspian Sea as an inland sea.

[6] Shape of the Earth – Flat disc

[7] Divided world landmass into three continents Europe, Asia and Libya.

[8] Egypt is a gift of river Nile

[9] First time gave concept on winds moves from cold to hot places.


Q.13. Who promoted the logic of Particular to General procedures?

(1) Eratosthenes

(2) Homer

(3) Aristotle

(4) Plato

Answer: 3

Aristotle (384-322 BC):

[1] Master of inductive reasoning – from the particular to the general.

[2] Idea of Spherical Earth

[3] Formulated laws or fundamental principles of scientific explanation.

[4] According to him – Torrid Zone (near equator) & Frigid Zone (near polar regions) – uninhabitable

[5] Population lived in the ‘Temperate Zone’ which existed between the Torrid and Frigid Zones.

[6] Book : Meteorologica – describe about the origin of tides

[7] Aristotle was the first teleologist (believe in God Creation)


Q.14. Inductive approach is related with –

(1) Deduced knowledge

(2) Empirically observed knowledge

(3) Philosophical knowledge

(4) Theological knowledge

Answer: 2


Q.15. Who among the following first used the term Ecumene and Non-ecumene to distinguish between inhabited and uninhabited portion of earth’s surface?

(1) Romans

(2) Greeks

(3) German

(4) French

Answer: 2


PDF Name: Geographical Thought Important MCQS Part 1 (1-15)

Language: English

Size:  3.22 MB

No. of Pages: 8

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