Geographical Thought Most Important Questions Part 5 for NTA UGC NET

Geographical Thought Most Important / Expected Questions Part 5 (51-55) for NTA UGC NET 2023 

(PDF) For download pdf file of GEOGRAPHICAL THOUGHT Important MCQS Part 5 (51-55) – – go to the bottom of this post.


Q.51. The concept of areal differentiation was propounded by

(A) Hettner

(B) Carl O Sauer

(C) F. Ratzel

(D) R. Hartshorne

Answer: D


Richard Hartshorne (1899-1992)

[1] Richard Hartshorne supporter of Regional Geography.

[2] His famous book: ‘The Nature of Geography’ (1939), & ‘Perspectives on the Nature of Geography’ (1959)

[3] The term ‘Areal Differentiation’ was coined & used by Hartshorne.

[4] He called history ‘time science’ and geography as ‘space science’



Q.52. Schaefer was in favour of:

(A) Exceptionalism

(B) Idiography

(C) Areal differentiation

(D) Scientific generalization

Answer: (D)

Fred Kurt Schaefer (1904-1953)

[1] Schaefer published a paper ‘Exceptionalism in Geography: A Methodological Examination’.

[2] He rejected the exceptionalism view in geography

[3] He ask for Nomothetic Approach (Law-Making)

[4] He was supporter of Systematic / General Geography

[5] He is also one of pioneer of quantitative revolution.

[6] He supported Positivism and system analysis approach in geography.

Supporter of Systematic Geography – Alexander Von Humboldt, Schaefer, Koppen, Candolle, Whittlesey, Penck 


Q.53. Which one of the following is a correct sequence in the development of German geographical thought –

(A) Troll – Peschel – Hettner – Ratzel

(B) Peschel – Ratzel – Hettner – Troll

(C) Peschel – Troll – Hettner-Ratzel

(D) Ratzel – Peschel – Troll – Hettner

Answer: B


German Scholar Lifespan (Birth & Death)
[1] Bernhard Varenius (AD 1622 – 1650)
[2] Immanuel Kant (AD 1724 – 1804)
[3] Alexander Von Humboldt (AD 1769 – 1859)
[4] Carl Ritter (AD 1779 – 1859)
[5] Charles Darwin (AD 1809 – 1882)
[6] Oscar Peschel (AD 1826 – 1875)
[7] Ferdinand Von Richthofen (AD 1833 – 1905)
[8] Friedrich Ratzel (AD 1844 – 1904)
[9] Alfred Hettner (AD 1859 – 1941)
[10] Albrecht Penck (AD 1858 – 1945)
[11] Carl Troll (AD 1899-1975)


* Oscar Peschel (1826-1875)

[1] He as the editor of “DAS AUSLAND”

[2] He developed comparative Geography.

[3] Physical Geographer.

[4] Important book- History of geography (1865)

* Ferdinand von Richthofen (1833-1905)

[1] Richthofen founder of modern geomorphology

[2] He was the first German scholar to differentiate between the “general” and the “regional” geography

[3] He was coined the term “Silk Route” in 1877

[4] Richthofen used the term ‘chorology’

[5] Supporter of Regional Geography

[6] Supporter of Physical Geography


* Albrecht Penck (1858-1945)

[1] Penck German Physical Geographer

[2] He formulated the concept of ‘geomorphology’.

[3] He was the first to point out that evaporation increases with higher temperature.

[4] The idea of topographical maps was thus put forward by him.

[5] He introduced the term ‘Gestalt’ (meaning ‘whole’).


*CARL TROLL (1899-1975)

[1] Carl Troll coined the term ‘Landscape Ecology’ in 1939.

[2] His famous monograph on Periglacial Geomorphology.


French School of Thought

Q.54. The principle of “terrestrial whole” was advocated by which of the following experts?

(1) Hartshorne

(2) Blache

(3) Ritter

(4) Humboldt

Answer: 2

(1) Vidal De Lablache (1845 – 1918)

[1] Known as Founder of Human Geography

[2] Vidal de Lablache laid the foundation of the school of possibilism (Founder of Possibilism)

An approach to the study of man and environment relationship.

Man Active and nature is passive.

As per possibilism, nature offers opportunities for developing the cultural landscape within the certain limits.

[3] He was a strong opponent and critique of environmental determinism

[4] He argued for regional geography as the core of geography.

[45 He founded a new periodical of Geography, “Annals de Geographie”

[6] In 1845, Blache Published the first edition of the ‘Atlas Generale Vidal Lablache’

[7] He laid stress upon the relationship between man and his immediate surroundings (milieu) which could best be studied in small homogeneous areas. In France, such homogeneous areas are known as Pays.

Milieu – Immediate surrounding (environment)

Pays Concept- (Homogeneous Areas/Regions)

[8] Blache’s Book- ‘Tableau de la Geographie de la France’

[9] Vidal monumental work ‘Human Geography’ was post humously published in 1921 by Emmanuel de Martonne his Son-in-Law

[10] This book emphasis on the concept of ‘Terrestrial Unity’

(which means factors operating on the earth surface are intricately interlinked.

refers to the idea that the Earth’s land masses are connected and interrelate

[11] Publication/Books-

Geography de la France – 1903

France de la Est – 1917


Q.55. The concept of pays (Small Homogenous Areas) was coined by

(A) Brunches

(B) P. Geddes

(C) La Blache

(D) F. Ratzel

Answer: C



PDF Name: Geographical Thought Important MCQS Part 5 (51-55)

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