Geographical Thought Most Important Questions Part 9 for NTA UGC NET

Geographical Thought Most Important / Expected Questions Part 9 (81-90) for NTA UGC NET 2023 

(PDF) For download pdf file of GEOGRAPHICAL THOUGHT Important MCQS Part 9 (81-90) – – go to the bottom of this post.


Q.81. There is a strong relationship between environment, image and decision making. This statement pertains to

(A) Humanism

(B) Behaviouralism

(C) Radicalism

(D) Welfare Approach

Answer: B


Behaviouralism –

The behavioral approach in geography was introduced in 1960s.

It was developed as the opposition of quantitative and positivism approaches.

As positivism and Quantitative approaches believed that:

  • Space is isotropic surface
  • Men is an economic rational person
  • Use of statistical technique
  • And non-relevance of human values, beliefs, culture in human decision making.

Kirk- propounded first behavioral models in 1951. He asserted that in space and time, the same information would have different meaning for people of different socio – economic, ethnic, cultural backgrounds living in a similar geographical environment. 

Wolpert- showed that farmers are not Economic Men or farmers were not optimizers but Simon’s term satisfies.

The Basic Philosophy of Behaviourlism Approach:

The behavioural geographer recognizes that man shapes as well as responds to his environment & man and environment dynamically interrelated.

Space (Environment) have a dual character-

(i) Objective Environment –

The world of actuality, which can be gauged by some direct means (Senses)

(ii) Behavioural Environment –

The world of mind (Mental Map) – Which can be studied only by indirect means.

(Mental Map Concept Developed by P. Gould, R. White  and Lynch also associated with mental map concept)


Q.82. Who among the following developed the concept of Mental Map?

(A) Downs

(B) F. Perroux

(C) Boulding and Haggerstrand

(D) P. Gould, R. White and Lynch

Answer: D



Q.83. The concept ‘Pragmatism’ was given by

(A) Auguste Comte

(B) Peirce

(C) I. Burton

(D) Tuan

Answer: B


Pragmatism in Geography

Pragmatism is a principle of inquiry and an account of meaning first proposed by C. S. Peirce in the 1870s.

Pragmatism is a philosophical perspective which is centrally concerned with the construction of meaning through experience.

Pragmatism is a modified form of positivism. Like positivism, pragmatism advocates the use of scientific method. The only difference being that this movement tries to find solutions to human problems. The proponents of pragmatism use value-based scientific methodology (incorporating human attitudes, beliefs and norms) to solve the practical problems of the society and to ascertain the geographic reality.


Q.84. The concept of paradigm was propounded by

(A) Kant

(B) Peet

(C) Kuhn

(D) Haggett

Answer: (C)

Paradigm Shift – Thomas Samuel Kuhn

A paradigm is a basic framework of assumptions, principles and methods from which the members of the community work.

Thomas Kuhn 1962 book The “Structure of Scientific Revolutions” is one of the most cited academic books of all time.

Kuhn defined and popularized the concept of “paradigm shift”.


Q.85. Who among the following is an advocate of idealism in geography?

(A) Guelke

(B) Gilbert

(C) Samuels

(D) Pocock

Answer: (A)

Idealism – 

  • This is a view that reality is mental or mind-depended.
  • Guelke is the most celebrated advocate of idealism in geography
  • This idealistic Approach to Humanistic geography was advocated by Harris and Guelke (1971).
  • According to Guelke, the idealistic approach in human geography seeks to “understand the development of earth’s cultural landscapes by uncovering the thought that lies behind them”
  • In human geography, idealism has been interpreted as “a method by which one can rethink the thought of those whose actions one seeks to explain”
  • It regards reality as residing in or constituted by the mind.
  • Idealism is a humanstic philosophy based upon the belief that the world is constructed through the human mind instead of matter.


Q.86. The statement that ‘a method by which one can rethink the thought of those whose actions one seeks to explain’ refers in human geography to the philosophy of

(A) Phenomenology

(B) Idealism

(C) Existentialism

(D) Positivism

Answer: (B)


Q.87. Given below are two statements, one labelled as Assertion (A) and other labelled as Reason (R):

Assertion (A): Humanistic Geography rejects positivism and quantification in geography.

Reason (R): Humanistic Geography emphasizes the role of the human agency and its creativity in the construction of place, space and landscape.

Select your answer from the codes given below.


(A) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is true, but (R) is false.

(D) (A) is false, but (R) is true.

Answer: (A)

Humanistic Geography:

Humanistic Geography emerged in the Anglo-American discipline during the 1970s. Humanistic geography is a manner of approaching within the field of human geography that seeks to put humans at the centre of geography.

It gives a central and active role to human awareness, human agency, human consciousness and human creativity. It is also an attempt to understand meaning, values and human significance of life.

The humanist school of thought in geography was developed against the quantitative revolution and positivist approach, because these approaches neglected humanistic values and the role of religion, ethics, values, personal knowledge, etc. in geography.

One of the first geographers to attract a wide audience with his advocacy of a humanistic approach was Kirk (1951). But, it was Tuan (1976) who argued for humanistic geography.

The term ‘humanistic geography’ was used for the first time by Yi-Fu-Tuan in 1976. The focus of humanistic geography is on people and their condition.

He opined that humanistic geography sought to achieve an understanding of the world through an insight into the human-nature relationship and the geographical behavior of humankind as well as their perception of space and place. Geographical activities and phenomena were treated as the manifestation of human awareness and knowledge.

For Tuan, humanistic geography was a perspective that disclosed the complexity and ambiguity of relations between people and place (man and environment).

  • F. Tuan is considered the father of the humanistic school of thought in Geography.

Well-known Humanist Geographers:

  • William Kirk
  • Anne Buttimer
  • Edward Relph
  • Yi-Fu Tuan
  • Kropotkin


As per Tuan, humanistic geography is based on four main principles:

  • Human awareness
  • Human work as an agency
  • Human consciousness
  • Human creativity

Y F Tuan tried to explain this complex relation by using five themes. The following are five themes-

  • Geographical knowledge
  • Territory and place
  • Crowding and privacy
  • Livelihood and economics
  • Religion


Q.88. Who is the founder of the Humanistic School in Geography?

(1) Wolpert

(2) Taun

(3) Kirk

(4) Harvey

Answer- 2


Q.89. Which perspective in geography is associated with Ferdinand de Saussure?

(1) Positivism

(2) Behaviouralism

(3) Feminism

(4) Structuralism

Answer: 4


[1] Founder of structuralism Ferdinand de Saussure, a French linguist.

[2] The structuralism philosophy in geography was introduced in between 1950s and 1960s.

[3] Structuralism is an approach within geography which advocates that to understand the surface patterns of human behaviour, it is necessary to have knowledge about the structures underlying them which shape human actions.

[4] Proponents: Ferdinand de Saussure and Claude Levi Strauss, Anthony Giddens , Pierre Bourdien, Jean Piaget etc.


Q.90.  Given below are two statements about Structuralism/ Structuralists:

Statement I: Structuralism is concerned with discovering the things that are real and important in social life by looking beneath the taken-for-granted socio-economic categories.

Statement II: Structuralist appreciated the human creativity and intentionality related to individual’s lives.

In light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:

(1) Both Statement I and Statement II are correct.

(2) Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect.

(3) Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect.

(4) Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct.

Answer: 3


PDF Name: Geographical Thought Important MCQS Part 9 (81-90)

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