Part 2 of 100 PYQS from Theories & Models in Geography for UGC NET

Part 2 of 100 PYQS from Theories & Models in Geography for UGC NET


(PDF) For download pdf file of Theories & Models 100 PYQS  – – go to the bottom of this post.



Q.21. In D.M Smith’s theoretical model of the spatial margins to profitability, if cost is constant, the space-revenue curve would be

  1. V-shaped
  2. A-shaped
  3. S-shaped
  4. Rectangular

Answer- 2


DM Smith Location Theory:

  • D. M. Smith presented a simple model of industrial location in his book “Industrial Location”, published in 1971.
  • The theory explains the idea of spatial margin locations.
  • Location inside the margin would result profit for the organization, while outside would result into loss.
  • The theory is based on Spatial Margins of profitability of an industry, so it is known as ‘Spatial Margins Theory’.


Q.22. D. Whittlessey divided the whole world into how many types of agrilcultural region?

  1. 12
  2. 13
  3. 115
  4. 18

Answer- 2


Whittlesey Classification of World Agricultural Region – 1936


Whittlesey has identified the following 13 types of agricultural system regions—


  1. Nomadic herding
  2. Livestock ranching
  3. Shifting cultivation
  4. Rudimentary tillage
  5. Intensive subsistence tillage (with paddy dominance)
  6. Intensive subsistence tillage (without paddy dominance)
  7. Commercial plantation
  8. Mediterranean agriculture
  9. Commercial grain farming
  10. Commercial livestock and crop farming
  11. Subsistence crop & livestock farming.
  12. Commercial dairy farming
  13. Specialized horticulture


Q.23. Which one of the following is the basis of Thornthwaite’s classification of climates?

  1. Precipitaion effectiveness and thermal effciency
  2. World distribution of natural vegetation
  3. Distribution of land and waterbodies
  4. Movement of air masses

Answer- 1


Climatic Classification of Thronthwaite’s

3 Phases Climatic Classification

  1. USA -1931

2.World – 1933

  1. Revised – 1948


  1. 1931 Classification based on –Precipitation Effectiveness & Temperature Efficiency
  2. 1948 Classification based on – Potential Evapotranspiration


P/E Index

A: (>127): Wet Climate (Rainforest)

B:(64-127): Humid Climate (Deciduous)

C:( 32-63): Sub Humid (Grassland)

D: (16-32): Semi-Arid (Steppe)

E:( < than 16): Arid (Desert)


T/E Index

 A’: Tropical (128 +)

B’: Mesotherms (64-127)

C’ Microtherms (32-63)

D’: Taiga (16-31)

E’: Tundra (1-15)

F’: Frost (0)


Q.24. Which one the following statements is true for Sadler’s theory of population growth?

  1. Increase in human population and food supply are inversely related
  2. Human population increases in geometrical progression while food supply increases in arithmetic progression
  3. Sadler’s theory of population growth belongs to the economic theories of population growth
  4. Human fertility varies inversely with population density

Answer- 4



Michael Thomas Saddler’s Theory of Population Growth:

Michael Thomas Saddler an economist and a British social reformer was a contemporary of Malthus.

He presented his ideas about population in his book “The Law of Population.”

According to him the natural law of population growth was exactly opposite to that expounded by Thomas Robert Malthus.

Concept of this Theory:

  • The region which have higher density of population there will be lower fertility.
  • And Higher the fertility lower the density of population.
  • Saddler advocated that there is an inverse relationship between humans tendency to increase their population and the existing population density in an area.
  • According to him, the population will grow upto a point where it had secured maximum happiness for the maximum number of people.


Criticism of Saddler’s Theory

  1. In many countries in the world where the density of population is high, the fertility rate is also high. e.g.India.


Q.25. Who among the following proposed the core-periphery model of economic development?

  1. Rostow
  2. Friedman
  3. Myrdal
  4. Harschman

Answer- 2


Core Periphery Model of Regional Development by Friedman:

Core-Periphery Model developed by John Friedman in the year 1966.

As per Friedman some regions developed rapidly because of some favorable reasons and became the core of development, periphery of these core is the area of the undeveloped region.

Core Regions: Economically Developed, Technology, Industry etc.

It supplies finished product to the periphery regions.

Periphery: Economically under developed, absence of technology, absence of industry, Poor Regions.

It Supplies raw materials and man power (labour/workforce) to core region.


John Friedman proposed that the world can be divided into four types of regions. These are

(i) Core Regions:

Core regions refer to centers, which are usually metropolitan. These centers typically have a high potential for innovation (improvement) and growth.

(ii) Upward Transition:

Regions Upward transition regions are areas of growth which spread over small centers, rather than at the core.

(iii) Resource Frontier Regions:

This refers to a newly colonised region at the periphery of a country which is un brought into production for the first time.

(iv) Downward Transition Regions:

These are regions on the periphery characterised by depleted resources, low agricultural productivity or by outdated industry.

Four Stages of Development:

  1. Pre-Industrial Stage
  2. Transitional Stage
  3. Industrial Stage
  4. Post-Industrial Stage


Q.26. According to A. Pred, the location of an industry is closely associated with which among the following approaches?

  1. Least cost approach
  2. Profit maximising approach
  3. Ecological approach
  4. Behavioural approach

Answer- 4


Behavioural Location Theory by Allen Pred (1967)

Allen Pred’s theory is based on behavioural approach. The behavioural approach draws on a human being as a satisfier.

Allen Pred published his theory entitled ‘Behaviours and Location’ in which he devised a behavioural matrix to illustrate and analysis of locational decisions.

Q.27. City I has population of 2,00,000 and city II has population of 6,00,000. They are 50 miles apart. Which of the following will be breaking point (BP) boundary marking the outer edge of their respective trade areas accrding to Reilly’s Law of Retail Gravitation?

  1. 12.5 miles from city I
  2. 45 miles from city II
  3. 28.3 miles from city II
  4. 18.3 miles from city I

Answer- 4


Dab = Distance between city a and city b

William Reilly developed “Law of Retail Gravitation” in 1931.

According to Reilly’s “law,” customers are willing to travel longer distances to larger retail centers given the higher attraction they present to customers.

Developed a formula to find the retail break-point between two cities based on their populations.

Q.28. Match List-I with List-II

List-I  (Number of settlements of different orders of  Walter Christaller)

(a) 6, 42, 294                          

(b) 128, 512, 2048                      

(c) 27, 351, 4563                        

(d) 1, 3, 9    


List-II (K- value)

(i) K = 3

(ii) K = 7

(iii) K = 4

(iv) K = 13

Choose the correct option from below:







(iv)  (i) 




(ii)  (iii) 




(ii)  (i) 




(iii)  (iv) 



 Ans: 2

Q.29. Who amongst the following propounded the ‘Theory of Intervening Opportunities’?

  1. E.G Ravenstein
  2. G.K.Zipf
  3. D.J Bogue
  4. S. Stouffer

Answer- 4


Theories of Migration:

  1. Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration: (1885)
  2. Mobility Transition Model of Zelinsky (1971)
  3. Push & Pull Theory of Migration/Intervening Obstacles – Everett Lee (1965)
  4. Gravity Model – John Q. Stewart
  5. Principle of Least Effort – George K Zipf (1940)
  6. Intervening Opportunities Model- SA Stouffer (1940)


Q.30. Which one of the following is not matched correctly?

  1. M.T. Sadler : Economic Theories of Population Growth
  2. W.C. Plowden : Census of India
  3. F.W. Notestein : Demographic Transition
  4. E.G. Ravenstein : Laws of Migration

Answer- 1


The economic theory of population growth was proposed by Thomas Robert Malthus in which the relationship between the growth in food supply and in population is explained. It states that population increases faster than the food supply and if unchecked leads to misery.

  1. Malthusian Theory of Population(1798)

He Published ‘An Essay on the Principle of Population’ in 1798

Also Known as Economic Theories of Population Growth

  • Nature controlled the population
  • Neglected the role of technology and medical advancement
  • Population growth rate is higher than the growth of the resources
  • Population grow in geometrical ratio: 1,2,4,8,16, 32, 64,….
  • Resources or food grow in arithmetic ratio: 1,2,3,4,5,6,7…. 
  • Positive check- Wars, disease, droughts, floods, poverty etc.
  • Preventive Checks- Delayed marriage, abortion, family planning etc.

Q.31. As per Edward Ullman’s mode of transport system, which one of the following describes complementarity?

  1. Demand and supply of a product between regions
  2. Cost of movement of a product between regions
  3. Availability of a product in a region
  4. Non-availability of a product in a region

Answer-: 1


  • Spatial interaction is the flow of information, products, and human beings from one location to another. Three principles of spatial interaction, as proposed by transportation geographer Edward Ullman, are complementarity, transferability, and intervening opportunity.
  • Complementarity is the condition where supply and demand between the locations. There must also be a linkage between the origin and the destination which is done by good transferability.

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