Part 4 Population Geography Theories & Models in Geography for UGC NET Exam
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Population Geography MODELS AND THEORIES FOR UGC NET EXAM, THEORIES AND MODELS IN GEOGRAPHY NOTES, MODEL IN GEOGRAPHY STUDY MATERIAL, THEORIES AND MODELS PYQS,
Theories and Models in Geography
Part 1- Geomorphology – Uniformitarianism, Isostasy, Continental Drift Theory, Cavern Formation Theory
Part 2- Climatology – Rainfall Formation Theories, Climatic Classification of Koeppen’s & Thronthwaite’s
Part 2- Oceanography – Theories of Coral Formation, Theories of Origin of Tides
Part 3- Agricultural Geography- Von Thunen’s Model of Land Use, Whittlesey Classification
Part 3- Economic Geography- Industrial Location Theory by Alfred Weber
Part 3- Regional Planning & Development – Economic Growth Model of Rostow, Gunnar Myrdal, O Hirschman, John Friedman, Francois Perroux, Planning Process of MacKaye, Planning Regions of V. Nath, Bhat & Rao, Sen Gupta & Chandrasekhara
Part 4- Population Geography – Population Resource Regions – Ackerman, Theories of Population Growth- Malthusian Theory of Population, Demographic Transition Theory, Theory of Migration- Ravenstein’s Laws, Zelinsky, Push & Pull Theory
Part 5- Settlement and Urban Geography- CENTRAL PLACE THEORY, Economic Location Theory of August Losch, Theories of Urban Urban Morphology- E.W. Burgess, Homer Hoyt, C.D Harris & E.L Ullman
Part 6- Political Geography- Heartland Theory, Rimland Theory
Part 6- Geographical Thought- Philosophical Approaches – Positivism, Pragmatism, Idealism, Realism, New or Critical Realism, Phenomenology, Radicalism, Behaviouralism, Welfare Approach
Population Resource Regions – Ackerman (1970)
His concept of “Population, Natural Resources and Technology” was published in the American journal ‘The American Academy of Political and Social Sciences’ in 1970.
Five-fold Classification of the world’s population / resource regions
- United States Type -USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand etc.
- European Type-Western, Southern and Eastern European countries and Soviet Central Asian republics, Singapore, South Korea and Japan
- China or Egyptian Type – Egypt, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Albania, Greece, Haiti, Cicely,
Guatemala, China, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Afghanistan etc.
- Brazilian Type -Indochina, Brazil, Bolivia, Venezuela, Paraguay, interior Argentina,
Central American Republics, Latin America , Cuba, north Australian territory, Equatorial Africa, etc.
- Arctic-Desert Type-Antarctica, Greenland, northern part of North America and Eurasia, Desert region of Peru, the Amazon basin, the Sahara desert, deserts of Central Australia, Central Asia, Chile, Patagonia, etc.
Theories of Population Growth
- Malthusian Theory of Population (1798)
He Published ‘An Essay on the Principle of Population’ in 1798
Nature controlled the population
Neglected the role of technology and medical advancement
Population growth rate is higher than the growth of the resources
Population grow in geometrical ratio: 1,2,4,8,16, 32, 64,….
Resources or food grow in arithmetic ratio: 1,2,3,4,5,6,7….
Positive check- Wars, disease, droughts, floods, poverty etc.
Preventive Checks- Delayed marriage, abortion, family planning etc.
- Demographic Transition Theory
Given by- WS Thompson in 1929 and revised by Frank Notestein in 1945
Based on – fertility, mortality and consequent change in population
five stages in demographic transition theory
- Stage I- High birth and high death rate
- Stage II- High birth rate and low death rate
- Stage III- Declining Birth rate and stable death rate
- Stage IV – Low Birth rate and Low death rate
- Stage V- Very low birth & Low death rates.
Theory of Migration
- Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration: (1885)
- First laws of migration.
- The Majority of Migrants go only Short distance (Distance Decay Model)
- Migration Proceeds Step by Step
- Migration going long distances generally go by Preference to one of the great centres of commerce or industry
- Each current of Migration produces a counter-current of lesser strength.
- The natives of towns are less migratory than those of rural areas.
- Females migrates more frequently than males within the country of birth, but males frequently venture beyond.
- Most migrants are adults; families rarely migrates out of their country of birth
- Large towns grow more by migration than by natural increase.
- The main cause of migration are Economic
- Mobility Transition Model of Zelinsky (1971)
The main idea of the migration transition model of Zelinsky is based on demographic transition model.
Stage I- “Premodern traditional society”
Stage II- “Early transitional society”
Stage III- “Late transitional society”
Stage IV- “Advanced society”
Stage V- “Future super-advanced society”
- Push & Pull Theory of Migration/Intervening Obstacles – Everett Lee (1965)
Push factors: Unemployment, Poor living standard, Political instability, Harsh climate, natural disaster etc.
Pull Factors: Better job opportunities , Better living condition, Peace and stability, Security of Life and property etc.
Intervening Obstacles: Distance and transportation. Technological advances etc
- Gravity Model –John Q. Stewart
- Principle of Least Effort –George K Zipf (1940)
- Intervening Opportunities Model-SA Stouffer (1940)