(PDF) To Download PDF File of DEC 2020 JUNE 2021 PYQS SHIFT II then Go to the Bottom of this Post.


Q.1. Who among the following challenged the theory of origin of species?

(1) P.E. James

(2) De Varies

(3) H. Robinson

(4) K.K. Park

Answer: 2

Hugo Marie de Vries was a Dutch botanist and one of the first geneticists. He is known chiefly for suggesting the concept of genes. He also challenged the theory of origin of species.

Origin of Species published on 24 November 1859, is a work of scientific literature by Charles Darwin that is considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology.


Q.2. The ‘economic zone’ of India from the coastline extends upto a distance of

(1) 112 nautical miles

(2) 120 nautical miles

(3) 200 nautical miles

(4) 320 nautical miles

Answer: 3

  • Any water between the land and the baseline is considered internal waters and the costal state has complete sovereignty over that just like the land.
  • All ports are situated inside the internal waters.
  • All waters outwards and upto 12 nautical miles from the baseline is considered territorial waters.
  • All waters outwards and upto 12 nautical miles from the edge of territorial waters is called Contigious zone.
  • All waters outwards the contiguous zone and upto 200 nautical miles (370 KM) from the baseline is called the E.E.Z. or the exclusive economic zone. All waters outwards the E.E.Z. is high seas.

Q.3. A Free Trade Zone, in international trade, happens to be there, where

(1) All the participating member countries impose a common tariff on imports from non-member countries

(2) All the participating countries allow free movement of labour and capital

(3) Member countries abolish tariff and quotas on trade but maintain independence to impose restrictions on imports from non-member countries

(4) Member countries adopt common economic policies on issues such as agriculture, transport, industry and regional policy

Answer: 3

Free Trade Zone

  • A free trade zone (FTZ) is a designated area that eliminates traditional trade barriers, such as tariffs, some kind of taxes and fees and minimizes bureaucratic regulations.
  • The goal of a free trade zone is to enhance global market presence of the Country or location by attracting new business and foreign investments.
  • Tax-free trade zones generate foreign exchange through exports, and create economic value added.

Objectives of FTZs

Tax-free trade zones have four policy objectives:

  • to attract foreign direct investment
  • to decrease unemployment
  • to support economic reform strategies by developing and diversifying exports
  • to test new approaches to foreign direct investment and to policies related to law, land, labor, and the pricing of goods.


Q.4. Who among the following described geography as the science of map making?

(1) Thales of Miletus

(2) Strabo

(3) Hecataeus

(4) Cladius Ptolemy

Answer: 4


  • Roman Geographer
  • He opined that geography as the science of map making.
  • Book- Guide to Geography (8 Volumes)


Q.5. The outcome of Kyoto Protocol 1997 agreement was

(A) 5.2% cut in emission of carbon dioxide

(B) Agreement can not be invalidated

(C) The protocol was to be effective from 1997

(D) The protocol was to be effective from 1999

Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:

(1) (A) and (B) only

(2) (B) and (C) only

(3) (A) and (D) only

(4) (C) and (D) only

Answer: 3

Kyoto Protocol:

  • P adopted on December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan.
  • Protocol laid down mandatory targets for reduction of GHG emissions which were accepted by leading developing nations of the world.
  • It provided for reduction of emission of six major GHSs viz., Carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydroflurocarbons, perflourocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride.
  • Protocol came into force on 16th February 2005.

First Commitment Period:

  • First Commitment Period from 2008-2012
  • Objective of the protocol was to reduce emission of GHS by atleast 5%
  • Different targets for different countries like target was 8% for European Union, 6% for Canada, Hungary, Japan, Poland, 7% for USA.
  • Canada withdraw from Kyoto Protocol in 2011.
  • USA and China did not ratify.

Second Commitment Period:

  • The second commitment period was agreed on in 2012, known as the Doha Amendment to the protocol
  • Second Commitment Period from 2013-2020.
  • Revised list of GHG,Nitrogen Triflouride added to the list.
  • Higher emission reduction targets prescribed for the second commitment period.
  • Decided to reduce their GHG emission by 18%.

Q.6. Which is not true regarding mountain climate of India?

(A) Sharp contrasts in temperature between the sunny and shaded slopes

(B) Diurnal range of temperature is high

(C) Uncertain character of rainfall with drought proneness and crop failures

(D) High temperatures accompanied by high humidity

Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:

(1) (A) and (C) only

(2) (B) and (C) only

(3) (A) and (B) only

(4) (C) and (D) only

Answer: 3


Q.7. In which of his book in 1919, Mackinder rechristened his concept of ‘Pivot Area’ as ‘Heart land’

(1) The Round world and the winning of peace

(2) Foreign Affairs

(3) World war and Geography

(4) The Democratic ideals and Reality

Answer: 4


Q.8. Which one of the following states/UT in India have recorded high decrease in infant mortality rate during last 3 decades?

(1) Jammu and Kashmir

(2) Uttar Pradesh

(3) Tamil Nadu

(4) Madhya Pradesh

Answer: 3

  • Jammu and Kashmir: 45 (2009), 20 (2019)
  • Uttar Pradesh: – (2009), 41 (2019)
  • Tamil Nadu: 59 (2009), 15 (2019)
  • Madhya Pradesh: 12 (2009), 46 (2019)
1. Andhra Pradesh 4 25
2.Assam 61 40
3.Bihar 52 29
4. Chhattisgarh 54 40
5. NCT of Delhi 33 11
6. Gujarat 48 25
7. Haryana 51 27
8. Jammu & Kashmir 45 20
9. Jharkhand 4 27
10. Karnataka 4 21
11. Kerala 41 6
12. Madhya Pradesh 12 46
13. Maharashtra 67 17
14. Odisha 31 38
15. Punjab 65 19
16. Rajasthan 38 35
17. Tamil Nadu 59 15
18. Telangana 28 23
19. Uttar Pradesh 41
20. Uttarakhand 63 27
21. West Bengal 41 20
22. Arunachal Pradesh 33 29
23. Goa 32 19
24. Himachal Pradesh 11 10
25. Manipur 45 33
26. Meghalaya 16 3
27. Mizoram  59 3
28. Nagaland 36 5
29. Sikkim 26 21
30. Tripura 34 7
31. Andaman & Nicobar Islands  31 13
32. Chandigarh 27 11
33. Dadra & Nagar Haveli 25 17
34. Daman & Diu 37 8
35. Lakshadweep  24 9
36. Puducherry 25 30
37. India 22 25

Source: Office of the Registrar General of India, Ministry of Home Affairs


Q.9. The correct sequence of the states in ascending order in terms of Mangrove vegetation coverage area is

(A) Goa

(B) Andhra Pradesh

(C) Odisha

(D) West Bengal

Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:

(1) (B), (A), (C), (D)

(2) (A), (B), (C), (D)

(3) (B), (A), (D), (C)

(4) (A), (B), (D), (C)

Answer: 2

  • Goa: 26
  • Andhra Pradesh: 404
  • Odisha: 251
  • West Bengal: 2112


States/UTs Wise Mangrove Vegetation Cover in India (2019)

States/UTs Total Mangrove Cover in Sq km
1. West Bengal 2,112
2. Gujarat 1,177
3. Andaman And Nicobar Islands 616
4. Andhra Pradesh 404
5. Odisha 251
6. Maharashtra 320
7. Tamil Nadu 45
8. Goa 26
9. Karnataka 10
10. Kerala 9

Source: Forest Survey of India, Dehradun. India State of Forest Report (2019).


Q.10. Which one of the following statements are correct?

(A) Ocean currents provide a high degree of regulation to the thermal environments of the earth’s surface

(B) On a local scale, warm water currents bring moderating influence to coasts in arctic latitudes

(C) Cold currents are not able to bring down the temperature of tropical deserts

(D) Density differences may also cause flow of ocean water

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(1) (A), (C) and (D) only

(2) (A), (B) and (D) only

(3) (B), (C) and (D) only

(4) (A), (B) and (C) only

Answer: 2

Ocean currents act much like a conveyor belt, transporting warm water and precipitation from the equator toward the poles and cold water from the poles back to the tropics. Thus, ocean currents regulate global climate, helping to counteract the uneven distribution of solar radiation reaching Earth’s surface.

Without currents in the ocean, regional temperatures would be more extreme—super hot at the equator and frigid toward the poles—and much less of Earth’s land would be habitable.

Ocean currents bring heat from warmer regions into the Arctic Ocean.

In the Atlantic Ocean, a current called the Gulf Stream brings warm water up along the coast of North America and across the North Atlantic Ocean towards northern Europe. The Gulf Stream keeps places like Norway and the island of Svalbard much warmer than other places at similar latitudes in the Arctic.

But the sea ice covering the Arctic Ocean acts as a lid, preventing heat from the ocean from escaping to warm the atmosphere. That means that the air above the ice can get bitterly cold—deep below freezing—while the water underneath remains much warmer—never getting colder than the freezing point.

Currents may also be caused by density differences in water masses due to temperature (thermo) and salinity (haline) variations via a process known as thermohaline circulation. These currents move water masses through the deep ocean—taking nutrients, oxygen, and heat with them.

More salt makes water heavier and therefore denser. These two factors, temperature, and salinity are the main driving forces behind Earth’s ocean conveyor belt, which is a huge water circulation system in the deep ocean that moves water around the globe.


Q.11. Which group of countries is known as the emerging markets?

(A) Taiwan – Japan

(B) India – Brazil

(C) Russia – China

(D) Russia – Chile

(E) U.S.A –  China

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(1) (A) and (E) only

(2) (B) and (C) only

(3) (C) and (D) only

(4) (D) and (E) only

Answer: 2

Q.12. Which one of the following in the correct sequence in the Development of German school of thought?

(A) Ratzel –Paschal- Hettner-Troll

(B) Paschal-Ratzel-Hettner-Troll

(C) Ratzel-Troll- Paschal- Hettner

(D)) Troll-Panchal-Hettner -Troll

(E) Hettner -Paschal –Troll- Ratzel

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(1) (A)

(2) (B)

(3) (C)

(4) (D)

Answer: 2

German Scholar Lifespan (Birth & Death)
1. Immanuel Kant (AD 1724 – 1804)
2. Alexander Von Humboldt (AD 1769 – 1859)
3. Carl Ritter (AD 1779 – 1859)
4. Charles Darwin (AD 1809 – 1882)
5. Oscar Peschel (AD 1826 – 1875)
6. Ferdinand Von Richthofen (AD 1833 – 1905)
7. Friedrich Ratzel (AD 1844 – 1904)
8. Alfred Hettner (AD 1859 – 1941)
9. Albrecht Penck (AD 1858 – 1945)
10. Carl Troll (AD 1899-1975)


Q.13. The process of evaporation in ocean water is affected by

(A) salinity

(B) latitude

(C) season

(D) winds

Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:

(1) (A) and (B) only

(2) (B) and (C) only

(3) (B), (C) and (D) only

(4) (A), (B), (C) and (D)

Answer: 4

Process of Evaporation

Evaporation can generally be defined as a process by which a liquid or solid is transformed into vapour.

Factors affecting Evaporation in ocean water

1.Salinity: There is a direct positive relationship between the rate of evaporation and salinity. Greater the evaporation rate, the higher the salinity and vice versa. In fact, salt concentration increases with the rapid rate of evaporation. Due to evaporation caused by high temperatures and low humidity, salt concentrations rise, and total salinity rises. Salinity is higher in the tropics than at the equator.

2. Wind:

Evaporation increases with the increase in wind speed and decreases with decrease in wind speed. This means rate of evaporation is directly proportional to the speed of wind.

3. Latitude:

At all longitudes oceanic evaporation rates are lower on the equator than at latitudes to the north and south. Over the oceanic cold tongues this is related to the presence of cold water and divergence of heat by the ocean circulation.

4. Season:

Climate change is likely causing parts of the water cycle to speed up as warming global temperatures increase the rate of evaporation worldwide. Maximum evaporation takes place during summer season.

Q.14. What will happen if the earth absorbs all the incident energy?

(1) Constant heating up

(2) Constant cooling up

(3) Constant transmission

(4) Constant reflection

Answer: 1



Q.15In which month, the maximum extension of sea ice is found in Arctic Ocean

(1) December

(2) February

(3) January

(4) May

Answer: 4


Q.16. Which one of the following cluster regions in the world are great clusters of population?

(1) East Asia, North America, South Asia, Africa

(2) East Asia, South Asia, Europe, Central Africa

(3) East Asia, South Asia, Europe, North Africa

(4) East Asia, South Asia, Europe, North America

Answer: 4

Regions in the world by population (2022)

  • Asia – 59.5%
  • Africa- 17.2%
  • Europe- 9.6 %
  • Latin America and the Caribbean- 8.4%
  • Northern America- 4.7%
  • Oceania- 0.5 %


Q.17. The term which describes that population will continue to grow even after fertility rates decline is known a

(1) Demographic momentum

(2) Demographic transition

(3) Rate of Natural increase

(4) Rate of fertility decline

Answer: 1

Demographic momentum is the tendency for growing populations to continue growing after a fertility decline because of their young age distribution.


Q.18. Who among the following gave the idea of the origin of monsoon in India?

(1) Al -Biruni

(2) Al- Masudi

(3) Ibn -Hakkal

(4) Ibn- Khaldun

Answer: 2


Q.19. The range of pH value for unpolluted rain water is between

(1) Ph4 and Ph5

(2) Ph5 and Ph6

(3) Ph6 and pH7

(4) pH7 and Ph8

Answer: 2

  • The pH scale measures how acidic an object is.
  • Objects that are not very acidic are called basic.
  • The scale has values ranging from zero (the most acidic) to 14 (the most basic).
  • As you can see from the pH scale above, pure water has a pH value of 7.
  • This value is considered neutral—neither acidic or basic.
  • Normal, clean rain has a pH value of between 5.0 and 5.5, which is slightly acidic.
  • However, when rain combines with sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxides—produced from power plants and automobiles—the rain becomes much more acidic. Typical acid rain has a pH value of 4.0.
  • A decrease in pH values from 5.0 to 4.0 means that the acidity is 10 times greater.

Q.20. Match List I with List II:

List I

Hydro power units

(A) Dehar

(B) Srisailam

(C) Kalindi

(D) Sharavathy


List II


(I) Karnataka

(II) Karnataka

(III) Andhra Pradesh

(IV) Himachal Pradesh

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(A)       (B)       (C)       (D)

(1)        I           IV        III        II

(2)        IV        II         III        I

(3)        IV        III        II         I

(4)        III        II         IV        I

Answer: 3

List of Hydroelectric Power Plants in India

States River Hydroelectric Power Plant
1. Andhra Pradesh Krishna Nagarjunasagar
2. Andhra Pradesh Krishna Srisailam
3. Andhra Pradesh, Orissa Machkund Machkund
4. Gujarat Narmada Sarovar
5. Himachal Pradesh Baira Baira-Siul
6. Himachal Pradesh Sutlej Bhakra Nangal
7. Himachal Pradesh Beas Dehar
8. Himachal Pradesh Sutlej Nathpa Jhakri
9. Jammu and Kashmir Chenab Salal
10. Jammu and Kashmir Jhelum Uri
11. Jharkhand Subarnarekha Subarnarekha
12. Karnataka Kalinadi Kalinadi
13. Karnataka Sharavathi Sharavathi
14. Karnataka Kaveri Shivanasamudra
15. Kerala Periyar Idukki
16. Madhya Pradesh Sone Bansagar
17. Madhya Pradesh armada Indira Sagar
18. Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh Rihand Rihand
19. Maharashtra Koyna Koyna
20. Manipur Leimtak Loktak H
21. Odisha Sileru Balimela
22. Odisha Mahanadi Hirakud
23. Sikkim Rangit Rangit
24. Sikkim Teesta Teesta
25. Uttarakhand Bhagirathi Tehri
26. Himachal Pradesh Baspa Baspa-II
27. Himachal Pradesh Satluj Nathpa Jhakri
28. Himachal Pradesh Beas Pandoh Dam
29. Himachal Pradesh Ravi Chamera-I
30. Himachal Pradesh Ravi Chamera-II
31. Himachal Pradesh Beas Pong
31. Jammu and Kashmir Chenab Dulhasti




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