(PDF) To Download PDF File of DEC 2020 JUNE 2021 PYQS SHIFT II then Go to the Bottom of this Post.


Q.21. Who among the following gave the concept of “Unity in Diversity”?

(1) A.V. Humboldt

(2)  Hettner

(3) C. Ritter

(4) O. Paschel

Answer: 3

Carl Ritter:

  • Co-founder of Modern Geography
  • Supporter of Teleological Approach
  • Book- Erdkunde
  • Developed Concept of ‘Unity in Diversity’

A.V. Humbolt:

  • Father of Modern Geography
  • Book- Cosmos
  • Coined the term- Permafrost
  • Developed Concept of ‘Unity in Nature’

Q.22. Arrange the following in order on the basis of year of meeting report

(A) COP21

(B) KYOTO protocol

(C) First Earth Summit

(D) IPCC Report

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(1) (C), (B), (D), (A)

(2) (B), (D), (A), (C)

(3) (A), (C), (D), (B)

(4) (D), (C), (A), (B)

Answer: 1

First Earth Summit: (1992)

  • The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the ‘Earth Summit, was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 3-14 June 1992.


KYOTO protocol: (1997)

  • P adopted on December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan.
  • Protocol laid down mandatory targets for reduction of GHG emissions which were accepted by leading developing nations of the world.
  • It provided for reduction of emission of six major GHSs viz., Carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydroflurocarbons, perflourocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride.
  • Protocol came into force on 16th February 2005.

IPCC Report:

  • In 1990, the First IPCC Assessment Report (FAR) underlined the importance of climate change as a challenge with global consequences and requiring international cooperation.

COP21: (2015)

  • At COP 21 in Paris, on 12 December 2015, Parties to the UNFCCC reached a landmark agreement to combat climate change and to accelerate and intensify the actions and investments needed for a sustainable low carbon future.


Q.23. Which of the following faunal groups has the highest percentage of endemic species?

(1) Amphibians

(2) Birds

(3) Insects

(4) Reptiles

Answer: 1

According to the IUCN regional red listing guidelines, 12% all the birds species, 23% all mammals species, 31% all gymnosperms species and 32% all amphibian species in world face the threat of extinctions and have a highest percentage of endangered species, and the threats including habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation, pollution, climate change, and invasive alien species.

Q.24. Which one is the correct ascending order of satellite sensors in terms of higher resolution?

(A) RBV of Landsat

(B) TM of Landsat



Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(1) (A), (D), (C), (B)

(2) (A), (C), (B), (D)

(3) (D), (A), (B), (C)

(4) (B), (C), (A), (D)

Answer: 2

  • (A) The Landsat 3 RBV spatial resolution is 40 meters
  • (C) LISS II of IRS-IC spatial resolution is 36 m
  • (B) TM of Landsat spatial resolution is 15 m
  • (D) PAN of IKONOS-2 spatial resolution is 1 m

Q.25. Which of the following statements are correct about vertical distribution of temperature in oceans

(A) The sun rays have no effect below 600 feet

(B) Inspite of movement of water, large part of sea in relatively cold

(C) 80% of water in the oceans has a temperature permanently below 40°F

(D) The vertical rate of decrease in temperature from equator to pole is the same

Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:

(1) (A), (B) and (C) only

(2) (B), (C) and (D) only

(3) (C) and (D) only

(4) (A) and (D) only

Answer: 1


Q.26. The GIS based map can be

(A) Updated

(B) Edited

(C) Displayed

(D) Viewed in google web portal

Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:

(1) (A) and (B) only

(2) (B), (C) and (D) only

(3) (A), Brand (C) only

(4) (A), (B), (C) and (D) only

Answer: 4

Q.27. Who among the following were the believers of Environmental Determinism

(A) C. Darwin

(B) Humboldt

(C) Ratzel

(D) Semple

(E) Blache

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(1) (A), (C), and (D) only

(2) (A), (B) and (E) only

(3) (A) and (B) only

(4) (A) and (E) only

Answer: 1

Believers/supporter of Environmental Determinism- C. Darwin, Humboldt, Ratzel, Semple


Q.28. Which of the following is not associated with structure of a tropical cyclone?

(1) Eye Wall

(2) Spiral Bands

(3) Annular Bands

(4) Ekman Spirals

Answer: 4

  • The Ekman spiral, named after Swedish scientist Vagn Walfrid Ekman (1874-1954) who first theorized it in 1902, is a consequence of the Coriolis effect. When surface water molecules move by the force of the wind, they, in turn, drag deeper layers of water molecules below them.

Ekman transport:

  • The net transport of water due to coupling between wind and surface waters is known as Ekman transport.
  • The wind blows across the ocean and moves its waters as a result of its frictional drag on the surface.
  • Water in the ocean can be divided roughly into three regions based on density: surface water, the pycnocline, and deep water. The top-most layer is driven by wind.
  • Motion in this layer drives flow in the layer below, and so on, such that wind-driven motion at the top, ultimately, drives flow in all of the layers below.
  • Ekman transport, forming convergence and divergence zones of surface water.
  • Ekman transport causes the surface layer of water to move at about 45˚ angle from the direction of wind, & the friction between that layer and the layer beneath it causes the successive layers to move in the same direction. This results in a spiral water movement down the water column.


Extra Info:

Eyewall: Around the ‘eye’ is a wall of cumulonimbus clouds surrounding it from all sides and is known as the ‘eye wall’.

Spiral bands: Also known as rain bands or feeder bands, these are spiral-shaped bands because of which the cyclone appears like a galaxy when from space.

The annular zone: Next to the spiral bands is the annular zone which is characterized by suppressed cloudiness, high temperature, and low humidity. ​

Q.29. Which of the following phenomena are not involved in global radiation balance?

(A) Pyranometer

(B) Anemometer

(C) Albedo

(D) Sensible heat

Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:

(1) (A) and (B) only

(2) (B) and (C) only

(3) (C) and (D) only

(4) (A) and (D) only

Answer: 1

A pyranometer is an instrument used to measure the amount of solar radiation

An anemometer is an instrument that measures wind speed.

Q.30. The sea plains are almost absent between:

(1) 20°S-30°S Latitudes

(2) 60°S-70°S Latitudes

(3) 40°S-50°S Latitudes

(4) 30°S-40°S Latitudes

Answer: 2


Q.31. Arrange the given regions/states in ascending order of wind and cyclone damage risk zone

(A) Eastern Coastal plain

(B) Rajasthan

(C) Most part of Maharashtra

(D) Karnataka (except coastal area)

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(1) (A), (C), (B), (D)

(2) (C), (B), (A) (D)

(3) (D), (C), (B), (A)

(4) (B), (C), (D), (A)

Answer: 3


Q.32. Which of the following is not an appropriate strategy used to promote qualitative research validation?

(1) Peer review

(2) Triangulation method

(3) Extended fieldwork

(4) Random validation of assignments

Answer: 4


Q.33. Match List I with List II:

List I

Goals of National Water Mission

(A) Goal-1

(B) Goal-2

(C) Goal-3

(D) Goal- 5

List II


(I) Basin level integrated water resource management

(II) Attention to vulnerable areas

(III) Water conservation by promotion of citizen and state actions

(IV) Comprehensive water data base

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(A)       (B)       (C)       (D)

(1)        I           II         III        IV

(2)        II         IV        I           III

(3)        III        II         I           IV

(4)        IV        III        II         I

Answer: 4

Goals of National Water Mission

Goal – 1 Comprehensive water database in the public domain and assessment of the impact of climate change on the water resource.

Goal – 2 Promotion of citizen and state action for water conservation, augmentation, and preservation.

Goal – 3 Focused attention to vulnerable areas including over-exploited areas.

Goal – 4  Increasing water use efficiency by 20%

Goal – 5 Promotion of basin-level integrated water resources management.


Q.34. Which of the following describes central place model

(1) Spatial patterns of urban and outlying areas based on the flow of goods and services

(2) Spatial patterns of income groups

(3) Spatial patterns of residential places

(4) Spatial pattern of cultural places

Answer: 1

Central-place theory

  • Central-place theory attempts to illustrate how settlements locate in relation to one another, the amount of market area a central place can control, and why some central places function as hamlets, villages, towns, or cities.
  • CPT explains the spatial arrangements, patterns, and distribution of urban areas and human settlements.
  • Central place theory was given by Walter Christaller in 1933 on the basis of settlement patterns in southern Germany.
  • This study included analyzing the relationships between settlements of different sizes and related their economic activities (market) with the population.
  • Central place hierarchy – Central place has the main function to supply goods and services to the surrounding population (Market Area), retail location, and market centers, Based on the concept of Range.

Threshold – The minimum population needed to make a service viable at a particular place. If this size is not reached then a particular activity will not start or it will be closed down.

Range – This is the maximum distance a consumer is willing to travel to purchase goods or avail of a service, beyond this distance consumer will not travel as the distance traveled for good/service will outweigh the benefit.

The different layouts predicted by Christaller have K- values which show how much the Sphere of Influence of the central places takes in — the central place itself counts as 1 and each portion of a satellite counts as its portion:

  • Marketing Principle (K=3)
  • Transport Principle/ Traffic Principle (K=4)
  • Administrative Principle (K=7)


Q.35. Which of the following statements are incorrect about the growth of tourism industry in the world?

(A) Steady growth in real incomes of the people in the world has contributed to growth of tourism

(B) Increased desire of the people to experience different cultures and landscapes has contributed to tourism growth over time

(C) Many countries have heavily invested in development of tourism infrastructure to encourage tourism

(D) There are little range of destinations open for the middle-income group travellers

(E) People from developing countries now dominate the global tourism

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(1) (A), (B) only

(2) (B), (C) only

(3) (D), (E) only

(4) (C), (D), (E) only

Answer: 3


Q.36. Which one of the following explains rapid growth of information and technology industry in South India as compared to North India

(A) Good Governance

(B) Good infrastructure and network accessibility

(C) Large number of higher technical institutes

(D) Lower Labour cost

(E) High proportion of manufacturing workers

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(1) (B), (C) and (E) only

(2) (B), (C) and (D) only

(3) (A), (B) and (C) only

(4) (A), (B) and (D) only

Answer: 3

Q.37. Match List I with List II:

List I

Arab Geographer

(A) Al-Masudi

(B) Al-Idrisi

(C) Al-Biruni

(D) Ibn-Khaldun

List II


(I) Kitab al Hind

(II) Muqaddimah

(III) Kitab Muruj-al-Dhahab

(IV) Tabula Rogeriana

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(A)       (B)       (C)       (D)

(1)        III        IV        I           II

(2)        I           IV        III        II

(3)        II         III        IV        I

(4)        IV        I           II         III

Answer: 1

(A) Al-Masudi – Kitab Muruj-al-Dhahab

(B) Al-Idrisi-  Tabula Rogeriana

(C) Al-Biruni- Kitab al Hind

(D) Ibn-Khaldun- Muqaddimah


Q.38. Laminar flow of air refers to

(1) Movement of particles in all direction

(2) Movement of particles in one direction

(3) Deflection in the direction of surface winds

(4) Decrease of air pressure between two isobars

Answer: 2

Laminar airflow is defined as air moving at the same speed and in the same direction, with no or minimal cross-over of air streams


Q.39. The line of equal distribution at 45 ° used for measuring inequalities is called

(1) Scatter diagram

(2) Histogram

(3) Lorenz curve

(4) Ogive curve

Answer: 3

In economics, the Lorenz curve is a graphical representation of the distribution of income or of wealth. It was developed by Max O. Lorenz in 1905 for representing inequality of the wealth distribution.

  • It is one of the simplest representations of inequality.
  • On the horizontal axis is the cumulative number of income recipients ranked from the poorest to the richest individual or household.
  • The vertical axis displays the cumulative percentage of total income. The Lorenz curve reveals the percentage of income owned by x percent of the population.
  • It is usually shown in relation to a 45-degree line that represents perfect equality where each x percentile of the population receives the same x percentile of income. Thus the farther the Lorenz curve is in relation to the 45-degree line, the more unequal the distribution of income.
  • The Gini coefficient is usually defined mathematically based on the Lorenz curve, which plots the proportion of the total income of the population (y-axis) that is cumulatively earned by the bottom x of the population (see diagram). The line at 45 degrees thus represents perfect equality of incomes.
  • A Lorenz curve gives more detailed information about the exact distribution of wealth or income across a population than summary statistics such as the Gini coefficient or the Lorenz asymmetry coefficient.
  • Because a Lorenz curve visually displays the distribution across each percentile (or another unit breakdown), it can show precisely at which income (or wealth) percentiles the observed distribution varies from the line of equality and by how much.


Q.40. Environmental determinism was criticised and opposed by

(A) Huntington on and Semple

(B) Vidal de la Blache and L. Febvre

(C) Humboldt and Ratzel

(D) Bitter and L. Febvre

(E) Blache and Reclus

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(1) (A) and (B) only

(2) (B) and (C) only

(3) (D) and (E) only

(4) (B) and (E) only


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