Geographical Thought Most Important Questions Part 7 for NTA UGC NET

Geographical Thought Most Important / Expected Questions Part 7 (61-70) for NTA UGC NET 2023 

(PDF) For download pdf file of GEOGRAPHICAL THOUGHT Important MCQS Part 7 (61-70) – – go to the bottom of this post.


Q.61. Who among the following geographers specifically emphasized on climatic determinism?

(1) Griffith Taylor

(2) Friedrich Ratzel

(3) Ellsworth Huntington

(4) Ellen Churchill Semple

Answer: (3)


Q.62. Who wrote the book ‘Civilization and Climate’?

(1) Jafferson

(2) Semple

(3) Trewartha

(4) Huntington

Answer: (4)


Q.63. Who gave the concept Place, Work, Family to study of cities and regions in a country?

(A) Mark Jefferson

(B) P. Geddes

(C) Le Play

(D) Jean Brunhes

Answer: C

Q.64. Who give the concept place – work- Folk to study of cities and regions

(A) P. Geddes

(B) Mark Jefferson

(C) F Ratzel

(D) Le Play

Answer: A


Patrick Geddes:

  • He is known for his innovative thinking in the fields of urban planning and sociology.
  • He introduced the concept of “region” to architecture and planning
  • The term “conurbation” was coined in 1915 in his book “Cities in Evolution”.
  • “Work, Place, Folkʼ approach developed by Patrick Geddes.
  • Constellation Theory also coined by Sir Patrick Geddes


Q.65. Who defined Geography as Human Ecology?

(A) Carl Ritter

(B) Friedman

(C) E.C. Semple

(D) H.H. Barrows

Answer: D


Harlan H. Barrows (1877-1960)

He rejected the concept of determinism as a paradigm in geography.

As per his view, Geography is a study of man’ adjustment to nature or ‘human ecology’.

Barrow pointed out that geographers should focus on how man are adjusting themselves to their environment.

Human beings are free to choose their choices within the limit set by nature. Therefore, he was possibilist.


Q.66. The term ‘Cultural Landscape’ was given

(A) C. Darwin

(B) Carl O. Sauer

(C) P. Geddes

(D) Humboldt

Answer: B


Key Points on Carl O. Sauer (1889-1975)

[1] Leading American Geographer of the 20th century.

[2] He rejected the environmental determinism of Ratzel and Miss Semple.

[3] In his opinion, the present ‘cultural landscapes’ are to be studied in terms of their development from the original ‘natural landscapes’

[4] The term ‘landscape’ was introduced into American geography by Carl Sauer in 1925 with the publication of his ‘The Morphology of Landscape’.

[5] Landscape was defined as an area made up of a distinct association of forms, both physical and cultural.

[6] He advocated: “The geographie study of any region must begin with a study of its entire previous geography, chronologically arranged.”

[7] Landscape, in his opinion, has form, structure and function


Q.67. Who among the following propounded the concept of compage?

(A) E. Ratzel

(B) Semple

(C) Mackinder

(D) D. Whittlesey

Answer: D


Key Points on Derwant Whittlesy (AD18901956)

[1] American Geographer

[2] ‘Sequent occupance’ is a concept and methodology first proposed in 1929 by geographer Derwent Whittlesey.

[3] ‘Sequent Occupance’— i.e., the study of the human occupation of a specific region over intervals of historic time.

[4] He divided world into 13 agricultural regions in 1936

[5] In regional studies, the concept of ‘compage’ was introduced by Derwent Whittlesey to explain that regional geography was not a mere description of phenomena characteristic of any spatial unit but studied the functional association that existed between human beings and their physical, biotic and social environment.

[6] Book/Work- Problems of Our Time (1946) and Environmentalism vs. Geography (1948)


Q.68. Who amongst the following has propounded the concept of time space geography?

(A) Hagget

(B) Johnston

(C) Haggestrad

(D) Harvey

Answer: C



  • The Swedish geographer Torsten Hagerstrand created time geography in the mid-1960s based on ideas he had developed during his earlier empirical research on human migration patterns in Sweden.
  • Hagerstrand was inspired in part by conceptual advances in spacetime physics and by the philosophy of physicalism. In geography concept of Time–space was introduced by Torsten Hagerstrand.
  • It provides a method of mapping spatial movements through time.
  • According to Hagerstrand reason for Time–space concept in geography are: space and time are scarce resources which individuals draw on to achieve their goals achieving a goal is subject to constraints these constraints interact to demarcate probability boundaries that choices are made within these boundaries.


Q.69. “Time-space compression” is a spatial concept given by

(A) Dorreen Massey

(B) David Harvey

(C) Daniel Bell

(D) Edward Soja

Answer: (B)

“Time–space compression” spatial concept given by David Harvey in his book ‘The Condition of Postmodernity.”

Time–space compression occurs as a result of technological innovations driven by the global expansion of capital that condense or elide spatial and temporal distances, including technologies of communication (telegraph, telephones, fax machines, Internet) and travel (rail, cars, trains, jets), driven by the need to overcome spatial barriers, open up new markets, speed up production cycles, and reduce the turnover time of capital.


Q.70. The concept of Probabilism was put forward by

(A) Jean Brunhes

(B) F.Ratzel

(C) La Blache

(D) O.H.K Spate

Answer: D


H. K. Spate, a British geographer, advanced the concept of probabilism.

He presented the view that “although the physical environment does not uniquely determine human actions, it does nonetheless make some responses more likely than others”.


PDF Name: Geographical Thought Important MCQS Part 7 (61-70)

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No. of Pages: 25

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