Geographical Thought Most Important Questions Part 8 for NTA UGC NET

Geographical Thought Most Important / Expected Questions Part 8 (71-80) for NTA UGC NET 2023 

(PDF) For download pdf file of GEOGRAPHICAL THOUGHT Important MCQS Part 8 (71-80) – – go to the bottom of this post.


Q.71. Which one of the following is not a supporter of the theory of determinism?

(A) Wolfgang Hartake

(B) R. Hartshorne

(C) O.H.K. Spate

(D) All the above

Answer: (D)


In accordance with this theory man is a slave of his environment. It holds the view that man’s actions are stimulated and governed by some outside agency like the environment.

Supporter: Some of the prominent advocates of Determinist school are F. Ratzel, E. C. Sample, E. Huntington, Charles Darwin


Q.72. Who among the following were the believers of Environmental Determinism (NTA UGC NET DEC 2020 JUNE 2021)

(A) C. Darwin

(B) Humboldt

(C) Ratzel

(D) Semple

(E) Blache

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(1) (A), (C), and (D) only

(2) (A), (B) and (E) only

(3) (A) and (B) only

(4) (A) and (E) only

Answer: 1

Q.73. Who coined the term possibilism in geography?

(A) H.H. Barrows

(B) Lucian Febre

(C) F. Ratzel

(D) Jean Brunches

Answer: B


Possibilism in geography developed as a reaction to extreme generalisations of environmental determinists that led to a counter thesis, of possibilism, which presented the man as an active agent.

(i) Natural environment does not determine human life.

(ii) Environment offers a range of possible opportunities to man.

(iii) Natural environment is inert. Man is capable of adapting it.

(iv) Man makes use of the opportunities offered by environment based on his cultural needs, norms and growth of technical knowledge.

A few examples of man’s capability to control his environment are making use of irrigation to compensate for lack of rainfall, making use of terraced agriculture on hill slopes, controlling of floods, constructing air conditioned homes and living comfortably in hot or cold places.

(v) Man influences his environment by his actions.

A historian Lucian Febure and Vidal de Lablache advocated the philosophy of possiblism. The concept was exclusively associated with French school of Geography.

Supporter: Vidal de la Blache, L. Febvre, and Carl Saur, H.H Barrows have supported ‘Possibilism’ in their own works.


Q.74. Who laid the foundation of the school of possibilism?

(A) Jean Bruches

(B) F. Ratzel

(C) G. Taylor

(D) Vidal De La Blache

Answer: D



Q.75. Which one of the schools of thought first developed possibilism?

(A) German School of Geography

(B) Russian School of Geography

(C) French School of Geography

(D) British School of Geography

Answer: (C)


Q.76. Environmental determinism was criticized and opposed by (NTA UGC NET DEC 2020 JUNE 2021)

(A) Huntington and Semple

(B) Vidal de la Blache and L. Febvre

(C) Humboldt and Ratzel

(D) Ritter and L. Febvre

(E) Blache and Reclus

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(1) (A) and (B) only

(2) (B) and (C) only

(3) (D) and (E) only

(4) (B) and (E) only

Answer: 4


Q.77. The concept of ‘Neo-Determinism’ was put forward  

(A) La Blache

(B) Carl O Sauer

(C) Griffith Tailor

(D) F. Ratzel

Answer: C



Griffith Taylor introduced the concept of ‘stop and go determinism’ or neodeterminism which reflects the middle way between the ideas of environmental determinism and possibilism. This concept shows that neither is there a situation of absolute necessity nor is there a condition of absolute freedom. Man is not a quite free agent but he can conquer nature by obeying it. The neodeterminism conceptually attempts to bring a balance nullifying the ‘either’ or ‘or’ dichotomy. This idea is also called ‘scientific determinism’

Griffith Taylor with his personal experience in Australia and Canada presented complete indifference to possibilist thinking and advised the geographers to practice scientific determinism.

Taylor writes, “I do not for a moment deny that man plays a very important part………. but man is not a free agent.” He believes that man is able to accelerate, slow or stop the progress of country’s development…… He is like the traffic controller in a large cities, who alters the rate but not the direction of progress.” Perhaps the phrase ‘stop and go determinism’ expresses succinctly the geographical philosophy of the writer.


Q.78. Which one of the following is the philosophical basis of Quantitative Revolution?

(A) Probabalism

(B) Idealism

(C) Positivism

(D) Existentialism

Answer: C


Quantitative Revolution

In the 1950s and 1960s, a revolutionary change described as “quantitative revolution” occurred in the discipline of geography. It replaced the ‘idiographic’ approach based on areal differentiation by ‘nomothetic’ one, which had its roots in the search for models of spatial structure and phenomenon.

It gave geography a scientific vision through the application of methodology rooted in statistical methods.

In the words of Burton (1963) this school had set out to discover universals, to build models and to establish methods and theoretical bases on which geographical realities could be erected.

Quantitative revolution that brought changes in the methods and techniques used to explain the geographical phenomenon in a spatial framework.


[i] To change the narrative character of the subject (geo + graphics) and make it a scientific discipline.

[ii] To explain and interpret the spatial patterns of geographic phenomena in a logical and objective pattern way.

[iii] To deals with the use of mathematical and statistical techniques;

[iv] To make accurate statements (generalization) about location order

[v] To prepare estimates, principles and laws for testing estimates and estimates and forecasts

[vi] To provide a sound philosophical and theoretical base to geography, and to make it a scientific discipline.

Models developed under Quantitative revolution:

The following are some geographical models which come into importance during the quantitative revolution;

  • Christaller model of central-place theory
  • Weber’s industrial location theory
  • Von Thunen crop intensity model 
  • Rank size rule and Primate city concept
  • The gravity model of Migration


Q.79. Which of the following are defining features of positivism?

(A) Metaphysics

(B) Empiricism

(C) Normative values

(D) Unification of Scientific laws

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(1) (B) and (D) only

(2) (A) and (B) only

(3) (A) and (C) only

(4) (C) and (D) only

Answer: 1

Positivism –

Positivism precisely described as a Philosophical movement that emphasized on science and scientific method as the only source of knowledge and which stood in sharp contrast to religion and metaphysics.

Its main purpose is to distinguish science from religion and metaphysics.

We also can say that Positivism is a philosophical thought, where assertions are validated by the use of logic, science, maths, facts, etc.

Positivism recognizing only that which can be scientifically verified or which is capable of logical or mathematical proof and therefore rejecting metaphysics and theism.

Origin: The origin of Positivism go back to 19th Century French Social Philosopher August Comte in 1820s. However, it was introduced in the 1950s in geography.

According to Comte – Social development took place in three stages

[1] Theological when everything was described as God’s will;

[2] Metaphysical – historical facts, Karma philosophy, etc are used to validate the event. In Indian society, it has a strong belief that people suffered or gained because of his/her previous life karma.

[3] Positive- when attempts were made to find out some sort of causal relations between the observed phenomena.


Q.80. Which among the following was responsible for the radical transformation of spirit and purpose of geography?

(A) Post Modernism

(B) Humanism

(C) Structuralism

(D) Quantification

Answer: (D)

PDF Name: Geographical Thought Important MCQS Part 8 (71-80)

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