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Q.81. State/UT wise location of Biosphere Reserves in India.

(A) Nokrek in Meghalaya

(B) Cold Desert in Jammu and Kashmir

(C) Simlipal in Odisha

(D) Seshachalam in Tamil Nadu

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(1) (A) and (B) only

(2) (B) and (C) only

(3) (A) and (C) only

(4) (B) and (D) only

Answer: 3

Biosphere Reserve


Name Year of establishment State/UT
1. Nilgiri 1986 (first) Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka
2. Nanda Devi 1988 Uttarakhand
3. Nokrek 1988 Meghalaya
4. Manas 1989 Assam
5. Sunderbans 1989 West Bengal
6. Gulf of Mannar 1989 Tamil Nadu
7. Great Nicobar 1989 Andaman and Nicobar
8. Similipal 1994 Odisha
9. Dibru-Saikhowa 1997 Assam
10. Dihang Dibang 1998 Arunachal Pradesh
11. Pachmarhi 1999 Madhya Pradesh
12. Kanchanjunga 2000 Sikkim
13. Agasthyamalai 2001 Kerala
14. Achanakmar-Amarkantak 2005 Madhya Pradesh
15. Rann of Kachchh (Gyan Bharati Reserve) 2008 Gujarat
16. Cold Desert 2009 Himachal Pradesh
17. Seshachalam 2010 Andhra Pradesh
18. Panna 2011 Madhya Pradesh


Q.82. Given below are two statements

Statement I: All human actions associated with production marketing and consumption of goods and services are defined as economic activities

Statement II:  All human actions linked not only with production marketing and consumption of goods and services but the time spent on leizure and pleasure activities are also defined as economic activities

In the light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:

(1) Both Statement I and Statement II are correct

(2) Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect

(3) Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect

(4) Statement is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Answer: 3


Q.83. Which of the following are not functional regions?

(A) Middle Gangs Plain

(B) National Capital Region

(C) Malwa Plateau Region

(D) Kolkata – Howrah Conurbation

Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:

(1) (A), (B) only

(2) (A), (C) only

(3) (B), (C), (D) only

(4) (A), (B), (C) only

Answer: 2

Formal region

A formal region is a geographical region that is homogeneous and uniform within a specified criterion. This specified criterion could be physical, social, or political. Example – Himalayan Region, Sub-Tropical Region, etc.

Functional Region

A functional region that displays a certain functional coherence, an interdependence of parts when defined on the basis of certain criteria is known as a functional region.

A functional region, also known as a nodal region, organized around a node or focal point. It is sometimes referred as a polarized region and is composed of heterogeneous units such as cities, towns & villages which are functionally inter-related. Example – National Capital Region.

Methods of Delineation of Functional Region

  1. Flow Analysis
  2. Gravitational Analysis

Methods of Delineation of Formal Region

1. Weighted Index Number Methods

  1. Mono Variate Method
  2. Fixed Index Method
  3. Variable Index Method
  4. Cluster Method

2. Factor Analysis Methods


Q.84. Match List I with List II

List I

Relief Features

(A) Puerto Rico deep

(B) Sunda Trench

(C) Philippine trench

(D) Point Barrow

Last II

Name of Oceans

(1) Pacific Ocean

(II) Atlantic Ocean

(III) Indian Ocean

(IV) Arctic Ocean

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(A)       (B)       (C)       (D)

(1)        I           II         III        IV

(2)        IV        III        II         I

(3)        II         III        I           IV

(4)        III        IV        I           II

Answer: 3

(A) Puerto Rico deep – Atlantic Ocean

(B) Sunda Trench- Indian Ocean

(C) Philippine trench- Pacific Ocean

(D) Point Barrow- Arctic Ocean


Q.85. Drift Theory of Wegener was postulated mainly to explain, which one of the following?

(A) Ice Age and Glacial movements

(B) Geological similarities of the coasts and Glaciations

(C) Distribution of landforms and ocean floors

(D) Major climatic changes in the world

Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below

(1) (A) and (B) only

(2) (B) and (D) only

(3) (C) and (D) only

(4) (A) and (D) only

Answer: 2

As stated earlier the main aim of Wegener behind the postulation of his ‘drift theory’ was to explain major climatic changes which are reported to have taken place in the past geological history of the earth, such as the Carboniferous glaciation of major parts of the Gondwanaland.

Besides, Wegener also attempted to solve other problems of the earth e.g., the origin of mountains, island arcs and festoons, origin, and evolu­tion of continents and ocean basins, etc.

The climatic changes which have occurred around the globe may be explained in two ways

If the continents remained stationary at their places throughout the geological history of the earth, the climatic zones might have shifted from one region to another region and thus a particular region might have experienced varying climatic conditions from time to time.

If the climatic zones remained stationary the landmasses might have been displaced and drifted.

The evidence of carboniferous glaciation of Brazil, Falkland, South Africa, Peninsular India, Aus­tralia, and Antarctica further proves the unification of all landmasses in one landmass (Pangaea) during the carbon­iferous period.

The South Pole was located near the present position of Durban in Natal. Thus, the South Pole was located in the middle of Pangaea.

Consequently, ice sheets might have spread from the South Pole outward at the time of glaciation and the aforesaid land areas, which were closer to the South Pole, might have been covered with thick ice sheets.


Q.86. Which of the following vegetation species do not pertain to Tropical Thorn Forests?

(A) Nirmali

(B) Kheira

(C) Tendu

(D) Haldu

(E) Babul

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(1) (A) and (B) only

(2) (C) and (D) only

(3) (A) and (E) only

(4) (B) and (C) only

Answer: 2

Tropical Thorn Forest is a type of desert formation that has scrub-like vegetation. They are characterized as mostly tropical and subtropical forests with trees and plants armed with thorns and spines.

The vegetation here is too scarce and with tall trees laid against the sparse ground where there is a lack of grass. In the tropical thorn forest trees like – Babool tree, ber tree, wild date palm, Khair tree, neem, khejri tree, palas tree, etc.

The tropical Thorn forests and the Scrubs are the most dominant variety of forests that experience an average rainfall of less than 70cm. 70cm is a very scanty rainfall.

These kinds of vegetation are usually seen in the semi-arid regions of India like in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, and other drier areas of the Deccan Plateau. ​

The vegetation includes the stunted trees with thorny bushes. The trees present in the thorn forest have long roots which penetrate deeper into the soil in search of water. In these trees, the leaves are thick and also small to minimize evaporation.

Q.87. Match List I with List II

List I

(Social Movement)

(A) Save Silent valley

(B) Chipko

(C) Narmada Bachao

(D) Jungle Bachau


List II

(State of Origin)

(I) Jharkhand

(II) Gujarat

(III) Uttarakhand

(IV) Kerala

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(A)       (B)       (C)       (D)

(1)        I           II         III        IV

(2)        II         III        IV        I

(3)        III        IV        I           II

(4)        IV        III        II         I

Answer: 4

(A) Save Silent valley: Kerala

(B) Chipko: Uttarakhand

(C) Narmada Bachao: Gujarat

(D) Jungle Bachau: Jharkhand


Q.88. The term peneplane denotes to

(A) A level surface formed in the old age of a fluvial cycle

(B) A level surface formed by wind erosion

(C) A level surface formed by marine ernsions

(D) A level surface formed by meeting of floodplain

(E) A level surface formed as an end product of erosion

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(1) (A) and (E) only

(2) (B) and (C) only

(3) (B) and (D) only

(4) (A) and (D) only

Answer: 1


Peneplains represent low featureless plain having undulating surface and remnants of convexo-concave residual hills. These are, in fact, the end products of normal cycle of erosion. These are frequented with low residual hills known as monadnocks (named by W.M. Davis after Monadnock hills of New England region, USA) which are left out due to less erosion of relatively resistant rocks. The end product of normal or fluvial cycle of erosion has been variously named by different geomorphologists, e.g. peneplain (W.M. Davis), endrumpf (W. Penck), panplain (C.H. Crickmay), pediplain (L.C. King), etchplain (Pugh and Thomas), panfan (A.C. Lawson) etc.

Q.89. Arrange the four Indian oceanic relief features in order of their location from north to south direction

(A) Laccadive-Chagos ridge

(B) Chagos-Saint Paul ridge

(C) Amsterdam-St. Paul Plateau

(D) Korgelen – Gaussberg ridge

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(1) (D), (C), (B), (A)

(2) (C), (B), (A), (D)

(3) (A), (B), (C), (D)

(4) (B), (C), (A), (D)

Answer: 3

Q.90. According to Koppen’s climatic classification ‘Amw’ climate is found in

(1) Assam

(2) Goa

(3) Punjab

(4) Arunachal Pradesh

Answer: 2

Koppen’s Climatic Classification:

A- Tropical Humid Climate (No winter, warm & moist condition throughout the year & temperature 18°C)

B- Dry Climate (high evaporation & low amount of rainfall & water deficit throughout the year.)

C- Humid Mesothermal/Middle Latitudes warm temperate climates (Mild Winters, average temperature of the coldest & warmest month between 8° & 18° C)

D- Humid Microthermal/Severe winter/ Cold Snowy Forest Climate (Severe winter, average temp of coldest & warmest month between -3° & 10° C

E- Polar Climates- (Summer less season, average temp of warmest month below 10° C


f- Precipitation throughout the year (Average temperature of the coldest month being more than 18° C minimum precipitation of 6 cm)

m- Monsoon Climate (Short dry season, average precipitation in driest month less than 6cm)

w-winter dry season

s- well defined summer dry season.

Code Meaning  Region
1. Amw Monsoon type with the short dry winter season The western coastal region, south of Mumbai
2. As Monsoon type with a dry season Coastal Tamil Nadu and adjoining areas of Andhra Pradesh
3. Aw Tropical Savanah type Most parts of the peninsular plateau
4. BShw Semi-arid Steppe type Rainshadow areas of Western Ghats, a large part of Rajasthan and contiguous areas of Haryana and Gujarat
5. BWhw Hot desert type Most of western Rajasthan
6. Cwg Monsoon type with dry Most parts of the Ganga Plain, eastern Rajasthan, Assam and in Malwa Plateau
7. Dfc Cold, Humid winters type with shorter summer Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh and parts of Assam
8. Et Tundra Type Mountain areas of Uttarakhand
9. E Polar Type Higher areas of Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh


Read the following passage carefully and answer the question given below (91-95)

Climate change involves both internal and external factors. External one includes solar variability, astronomical effects on the earth’s orbit and volcanic activity whereas internal one includes natural variability in the system, feedbacks within atmosphere. ocean and land surface. Recently, human induced climate change on global and local scale has become a reality, primarily through changes in atmospheric composition and surface properties. Climate changes involve continental drift, volcanic activity and solar output. Glacial interglacial cycles have been controlled by astronomical variations. The global temperature has increased by 0.5 C with greatest in the middle latitudes with warming particularly during the 1920 to 1940s and 1990s with several warmest years. Long-term changes are ascribed to astronomical forcings, while short-term changes linked to anthropogenic factors causing changes in atmospheric composition, including aerosol loading. depletion of ozone, destruction of vegetation etc. Recently, climate change predictions with GCMs are under taken for next 100 years depending on emission scenarios for greenhouse gases and aerosols the mean global temperature may increase in the range of 1.4 to 5.8°C. together with sea level rise. To conclude, critical research data on cloud cover, radiation, ocean processes atmospheric coupling and feedback processes in the context of climate change are required.

Q.91. Which of the following activities do not accentuate short-term changes in atmospheric composition?

(1) Aerosol loading

(2) Astronomical forcing

(3) Loss of flora

(4) Depletion of ozone

Answer: 2


Q.92. Which of the following elements is not associated with climate change?

(1) Solar variability

(2) Upwelling interactions

(3) Volcanic eruptions.

(4) Astronomical periodicities

Answer: 2


Q.93. Which one of the following rates of increase have been observed in global temperature in recent times?

(1) 1.0°C

(2) 1.4 °C

(3) 0.5°C

(4) 5.8°C

Answer: 3


Q.94. Which one of the following will be mean global temperature increase range till the year 2100?

(1) 0.1 – 2.0°C

(2) 1.5 – 4.8°C

(3) 1.4 – 5.8 °C

(4) 2.0 – 3.0 °C

Answer: 3


Q.95. Which of the following conditions is essential for future research with respect to climate change?

(1) Hychological modelling

(2) Runoff modelling

(3) Computer modelling

(4) Atmospheric modelling

Answer: 4


Read the following passage carefully and answer the question given below (96-100)

Population Geography, a sub field of Geography, studies spatial variations in distribution. composition, migration and growth of population to the terrain, in a way it involves demography in geographic perspective.

If focuses on questions such as where populations are found and how the size and composition of these populations in regulated by demographic processes of fertility. mortality and migration contributions to population geography are cross-disciplinary Disciplines other than geography contributing to population geography include demography, sociology and economics.

Since its inception, population geography has taken at least three distinct forms. The earliest emerging in the 1960s, focused on the systematic study of population distribution as a whole and spatial variations in dynamic characteristics of population. Trewartha. Zelinsky, WAV Clark and other from USA and J.B Garnier and Pierre George in France Pioneered this phase.

Population geography has widered its scope to cover different variety of themes with time. It studies various population characteristics including gender, religion age, disability racrete by grouping population characteristics into political and administrative units. All such variables go far beyond the vital statistics of births, deaths and marriage /migrations.

Geographers have studied relations between demographic growth, displacement and access to resources at the International scale. Examples are density maps prepared using choropleth, isoline and dots.

Q.96. Which one of the following vital statistics is related with demographic characteristics of population studied in Population Geography?

(1) Age and sex

(2) Religious composition and race

(3) Birth, deaths, marriage/migration

(4) Literacy and workforce

Answer: 3


Q.97. Which one of the following population characteristics does not belong to vital statistics?

(1) Births

(2) Deaths

(3) Age and sex

(4) Marriage /migration

Answer: 3


Q.98. Who among the following is not a U.S. Geographer pioneering population geography as a part of spatial science?

(1) GT Trewartha

(2) Pierre George

(3) Wilbur Zelinsky

(4) W.A.V. Clark

Answer: 2


Q.99. Which one of the following group of disciplines, other than geography, has contributed significantly to studies in population geography?

(1) Psychology, Anthropology and History

(2) Anthropology, Statistics and Sociology

(3) Sociology, Demography and Economics

(4) Economies, Sociology and History

Answer: 3


Q.100. In which of the following decades. Population Geography greatly focused on the systematic study of distributions and spatial differentiations in various attributes of population characteristics

(1) 1950s

(2) 1960s

(3) 1980s

(4) 1990s

Answer: 1



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