GEOGRAPHY PYQS DEC 2020 JUNE 2021 SHIFT II PART 4 (61-80)  NTA UGC NET

GEOGRAPHY PYQS DEC 2020 JUNE 2021 SHIFT II PART 4 (61-80)  NTA UGC NET

Geography PYQS DEC 2020 JUNE 2021, PYQS UGC NET SHIFT II GEOGRAPHY, UGC NET PREVIOUS YEARS QUESTIONS PAPER, GEOGRAPHY OLD PAPERS NTA UGC NET, PART I 61-80 PYQS JUNE 2021, DEC 2020 NTA UGC NET GEOGRAPHY PAPER, GEOGRAPHY PAPER 2020 JUNE 2021 SHIFT II GEOGRAPHY

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Q.61. River regime with reference to flow refers to

(A) Pattern of seasonal flow of water

(B) Rivers differ in their regime due to climatic conditions

(C) River regime is represented mathematically by cumecs

(D) River regime of Narmada and Jhelum are similar

Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:

(1) (A) and (B) only

(2) (B) and (C) only

(3) (C) and (D) only

(4) (A) and (D) only

Answer: 1

River regime – shows pattern of river discharge over a long period, usually a year

It is affected by many factors, including climate and drainage basin, and river properties.

River Regime is a graph showing variations in river discharge over the year. The pattern of flow of water in a river channel over a year is known as its regime.

The variability in discharge over the course of a year is commonly represented by a hydrograph with mean monthly discharge variations plotted over the annual time scale.

The two Peninsular Rivers display interesting differences in their regimes compared to the Himalayan Rivers.

The Narmada has a very low volume of discharge from January to July but it suddenly rises in August when the maximum flow is attained.

The fall in October is as spectacular as the rise in August.

 

Q.62. The concept of Lebensraum became popular in the discipline of political Geography after the publication of-

(1) Making Political Geography

(2) Geographical Pivot of History

(3) Cosmography

(4) Politische Geographic

Answer: 4

Friedrich Ratzel:

  • German Geographer
  • Influenced by Darwin’s theory of Evolution of Species
  • Coined the term Anthropogeography, describing it as the major field of geographical study.
  • Concept of Lebensraum (Living Space)
  • Anthropogeographie Volume I (1882): First Volume of Anthropogeographie is a study of man & earth relationship. (Deterministic Approach)
  • Anthropogeographie Volume II (1891): Second Volume of Anthropogeographie is a study about the influence of man on environment. (Pseudo-Possiblistic Approach)
  • He published his work on political geography, Politische Geographie, in 1897.

 

Q.63. Who is usually given the credit for establishing the validity of the idea that there was an Ice Age during which ice sheets covered much of the Northern Europe?

(1) Jukes

(2) Agassiz

(3) Ramsay

(4) W. Penck

Answer: 2

The origins of ice age theory began hundreds of years ago when Europeans noted that glaciers in the Alps had shrunk, but its popularization is credited to 19th-century Swiss geologist Louis Agassiz.

The idea of Continental Glaciation came from Louis Agassiz in 1840.

Agassiz’s hypothesis says that much of the continent of North America was covered by glacial ice that was 2 miles thick and which extended over much of the midwest.

Agassiz was Swiss, and so he knew glaciers well. Agassiz’s theory of mass extinction was based on his “discovery” of the “Great Ice Age” Contradicting the belief that a wide-ranging flood killed off such megafauna as the wooly mammoth, Agassiz pointed to rock striations and sediment piles as evidence of glacier activity from a destructive global winter.

Geologists soon found evidence of plant life between glacial sediment, and by the close of the century the theory of multiple global winters had been established

 

Q.64. Which one of the following periods did archaeologists find the evidence of permanent human settlements?

(1) The Palaeolithic Period

(2) The Bronze Age Period

(3) The Neolithic Period

(4) The Classical Era Period

Answer: 3

The Neolithic Age, which means New Stone Age, was the last and third part of the Stone Age.

In India, it spanned from around 7,000 B.C. to 1,000 B.C. The Neolithic Age is mainly characterized by the development of settled agriculture and the use of tools and weapons made of polished stones.

The major crops grown during this period were ragi, horse gram, cotton, rice, wheat, and barley. Pottery first appeared at this age.

Timeline

  1. Paleolithic Period (Old Stone Age): 500,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE
  2. Mesolithic Period (Late Stone Age): 10,000 BCE – 6000 BCE
  3. Neolithic Period (New Stone Age): 6000 BCE – 1000 BCE
  4. Chalcolithic Period (Stone Copper Age): 3000 BCE – 500 BCE
  5. Iron Age: 1500 BCE – 200 BCE

Q.65. Given below are two statements: One is labelled as Assertion (A) and the other is labelled as Reason (R)

Assertion (A): Among the states of India Madhya Pradesh recorded highest percentage of Scheduled Tribe population in census 2011.

Reason (R): Madhya Pradesh in located in central part of India dominated by large area under forests with least road connectivity and accessibility.

In the light of the above statements choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:

(1) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

(2) Both (A) and (R) are correct but (R) is NOT the correct explanation of (A)

(3) (A) is correct but (R) is not correct

(4) (A) is not correct but (R) is correct

Answer: 4

 

State-Wise Total Number of ST Population in Descending Order

State Population of Scheduled Tribes (in lakh)

 

Percentage of the state in the total  population of Scheduled
1. Madhya Pradesh 152.3

 

14.70%
2. Maharashtra 105.3 10.10%
3. Odisha 95.9 9.20%
4. Rajasthan 92.8 8.90%
5. Gujarat 89.6 8.60%

 

State-Wise Percentage of ST Population in Descending

 

State Population of Scheduled Tribes (in lakh) Percentage of the state in the total  population of Scheduled
1. Mizoram 10.36 94.4%
2. Nagaland 17.11 86.5%
3. Meghalaya 25.56 86.1%
4. Arunachal Pradesh 9.52 68.8%

 

Q.66. Match List I with List II:

List I

(A) Culture

(B) Cultural Complex

(C) Cultural Region

(D) Cultural Integration

List II

(I) Culture traits that are functionally interrelated

(II Area that is distinct from surrounding areas in specific characteristic

(III) Specialized behavioural patter under standings and adaptation of a group

(IV) Interlocking nature of the sociological technological and ideological subsystem

Choose the correct answer from the options given below.

(A)       (B)       (C)       (D)

(1)        III        IV        II         I

(2)        III        I           II         IV

(3)        I           II         III        IV

(4)        IV        III        II         I

Answer: 2

(A) Culture: Specialized behavioural patter under standings and adaptation of a group

(B) Cultural Complex: Culture traits that are functionally interrelated

(C) Cultural Region: Area that is distinct from surrounding areas in specific characteristic

(D) Cultural Integration: Interlocking nature of the sociological technological and ideological subsystem

 

Q.67. Match List I with List II

List-I

Rivers

(A) Mississippi

(B) Ganga

(C) Narmada

(D) Tiber

 

List-II

Types of Delta

(I) Arcuate

(II) Bird foot

(III) Cuspate

(IV) Estuarine

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(A)       (B)       (C)       (D)

(1)        I           III        II         IV

(2)        III        II         I           IV

(3)        II         I           IV        III

(4)        IV        II         III        I

Answer: 3

 

Q.68. Cirques are landform of

(1) First order

(2) Second order

(3) Third order

(4) Fourth order

Answer: 3

First Order Relief features – Continents and Ocean Basins

Second Order Relief features – Mountain, Plateau, Plain, faults and rift valleys

Third Order Relief features – landforms of running water, ground water, sea waves, wind, glacier etc.

 

Q.69. What is known as Fossil water

(1) Connate water

(2) Meteoric water

(3) Plutonic water

(4) Juvenile water

Answer: 4

The trapped water over the geologic time is referred to as fossil water.

Fossil water, also known as paleowater is an underground water reservoir that is geologically located in an undisturbed place. That is, the water cannot be replenished and may have been locked in the aquifer for thousands of years. The age of the water is what gives it the name “fossil water.” Fossil water can also be defined as water that infiltrated thousands of years ago under geological conditions different from the present.

Fossil water is stored in fossil aquifers which are geologically confined at their upper and lower limits by impermeable rocks, resulting in water being stored under pressure.

Most fossil waters are believed to have been infiltrated 10,000 to 40,000 years ago or within the Holocene and Pleistocene periods with some of the waters associated with melting glaciers in the last glacial maximum.

Connate Water: In geology, connate water is groundwater that has been trapped within the pore space of a sedimentary rock since its original deposition. Connate water is water trapped in the interstices of sedimentary rock (subsequently buried by younger sediments) or igneous rock when it was deposited. Connate water occurs as a film of water around each grain of sand in the rocks, which is chemically or physically bound to the lithosphere.

 

Meteoric water is the water derived from precipitation (snow and rain). This includes water from lakes, rivers, and ice melts, which all originate from precipitation indirectly. Meteoric water is derived from recent or modern atmospheric precipitation mainly rain and snow, which provides surface runoff of rivers, and streams.

Juvenile water is “new” water that is in, or derived from, materials deep within the Earth and has not previously appeared at the Earth’s surface or circulated in the atmosphere. Magmatic water, also known as juvenile water, is an aqueous phase in equilibrium with minerals that have been dissolved by magma deep within the Earth’s crust, and is released into the atmosphere during a volcanic eruption.

Q.70. Which of the following mines have their association with gypsum?

(A) Nagaur

(B) Lapin Buru

(C) Bhadwah

(D) Ghagidith

(E) Jasmar

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(1) (A), (B) and (C) only

(2) (B), (C) and (D) only

(3) (C), (D) and (E) only

(4) (A), (C) and (E) only

Answer: 4

  • Gypsum is mostly mined in Barmer, Bikaner, and Jaisalmer & Sriganganagar districts of the Thar desert region of Rajasthan.
  • Some gypsum mines in the Bikaner district also produce crystalline variety, i.e., selenite.
  • Gypsum is available in the Nagaur district in a significant amount.
  • Nagaur is the fifth largest.
  • The proposal of Bhadwasi gypsum mine ML no 2/94 is for the production of 3.0 MTPA of gypsum in a mine lease area of 1122.38Ha.
  • The lease area is located near village Bhadwasi, Makori, Bhadana, Pilanwasi, Manzwas & Ganthilsar, Tehsil & District Nagaur, Rajasthan.
  • Jamsar is famous for Gypsum.

Q.71. Which of the following atmospheric gases has not been represented by correct symbol?

(A) Neon – Ne

(B) Helium – He

(C) Nitrous oxide – NO

(D) Krypton-KR

Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:

(1) (A) and (B) only

(2) (B) and (C) only

(3) (C) and (D) only

(4) (A) and (D) only

Answer: 3

Gases Symbol
1. Neon Ne
2. Helium He
3. Nitrous oxide N₂O
4. Krypton Kr
5. Nitrogen N₂
6. Oxygen O2
7. Water H₂O
8. Carbon Dioxide CO₂
9. Methane CH4
10. Hydrogen H₂
11. Ozone O3
12. Sulfuric Acid H₂SO₄

 

Q.72. Which of the following are not the properties of correlation coefficient?

(A) r is independent of the choice of origin

(B) r is independent of scale

(C) r lies between -1 and +1

(D) r = +1.0 indicates a perfectly negative correlation

(E) r= -1.0 indicates a perfectly positive correlation

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(1) (A) and (B) only

(2) (B) and (C) only

(3) (C) and (D) only

(4) (D) and (E) only

Answer: 4

  • The correlation coefficient is a statistical measure of the strength of the relationship between the relative movements of two variables.
  • The values range between -1.0 and 1.0. A calculated number greater than 1.0 or less than -1.0 means that there was an error in the correlation measurement. Correlation coefficients are used to measure the strength of the relationship between two variables.
  • Pearson correlation is the one most commonly used in statistics.
  • This measures the strength and direction of a linear relationship between two variables. Values always range between -1 (strong negative relationship) and +1 (strong positive relationship). Values at or close to zero imply a weak or no linear relationship.
  • Correlation coefficient values less than +0.8 or greater than -0.8 are not considered significant.

 

Q.73. Who among the following scholars applied the formula PI= Y/Yn ÷ T/Tn where PI= Agricultural productivity index: Y=Total production of selected crops in unit area: Yn = Total production of the same selected crops in the country: T = Total cropped area of the unit, Tn= Total cropped area in the country for measuring agricultural productivity level

(1) Bhatia

(2) Enyedi

(3) Weaver

(4) Shafi

Answer: 2

In 1964, Enyedi devised new techniques for determining an Index of productivity coefficient of agriculture

 

Q.74. Northward slopes remain forested in mountainous areas due to

(1) Radiation intensity

(2) Sensible heat

(3) Diffusion of heat

(4) Rayleigh scattering

Answer: 1

 

Q.75. Match List I with List II:

List I

Spectral Band

(A) Blue

(B) Green

(C) Red

(D) Thermal

List II

Principal Applications

(I) Vegetation Stress Analysis

(II) Differentiating soil from vegetation

(III) Coastal Mapping

(IV) Vegetation discrimination

Choose the correct answer from the options given below.

(A)       (B)       (C)       (D)

(1)        I           II         III        IV

(2)        III        IV        II         I

(3)        II         IV        I           III

(4)        IV        III        II         I

Answer: 2

 

Q.76. When a manufacturing firm locates very close to its raw material suppliers or to supplying finished products, it is termed as

(1) Urbanisation economies

(2) Internal economies

(3) Marketing economies

(4) Localisation economies

Answer: 4

  • Localization economies occur when an increase in the size of an industry in a city leads to an increase in the productivity of a particular activity. Localization economies are, as has already been stated, usually seen to arise because firms taking part in local exchange will benefit from lower costs.
  • Presence in an agglomeration is held to improve the profitability of firms by reducing their costs of exchange of both goods and information (Appold 1995).

 

  • According to Scott (1983, 1988), the economies of agglomeration are particularly manifest when linkages between firms tend to be small scale, varying, and unpredictable, and thus where the interaction costs will rise rapidly with increasing distance. In other words, the greater the product and production flexibility, the more important are the agglomeration economies.
  • Localization economies arise from the presence of a large number of firms in the same industry in the same place. For example, textile firms cluster to share a large pool of suitably skilled and unskilled labor and other intermediate input suppliers.
  • Common resources such as roads, buildings, and power supply benefit firms in cities regardless of their industry.
  • Also, firms have better access to labor by locating in cities. The urban environment creates positive externalities that benefit several different industries.

Q.77. The term “Anthropogeographic” was coined by Ratzel in his work

(1) Study of harmonious reciprocal relation of man and nature

(2) Geography of man in terms of individuals and races

(3) Geography of man and his work in relation to earth surface

(4) Organic theory of society and state

Answer: 1

Friedrich Ratzel:

  • German Geographer
  • Influenced by Darwin’s theory of Evolution of Species
  • Coined the term Anthropogeography, describing it as the major field of geographical study.
  • Concept of Lebensraum (Living Space)
  • Anthropogeographie Volume I (1882): First Volume of Anthropogeographie is a study of man & earth relationship. (Deterministic Approach)
  • Anthropogeographie Volume II (1891): Second Volume of Anthropogeographie is a study about the influence of man on environment. (Pseudo-Possiblistic Approach)
  • He published his work on political geography, Politische Geographie, in 1897.

 

Q.78. What will be the median of the distribution represented in the given graph?

(1) 40

(2) 60

(3) 80

(4) 100

Answer: 2

  • Median is one of the three measures of central tendency. When describing a set of data, the central position of the data set is identified. This is known as the measure of central tendency.
  • The three most common measures of central tendency are mean, median, and mode. The Median is also called the Place Average, as the data placed in the middle of a sequence is taken as the median
  • When Less than ogive and More than ogive cross each other, and horizontal value touch this section which is known as the median value. Here 60 mm rainfall value touch with this section, so the median value is 60.
  • An ogive is a freehand graph drawn curve to show the cumulative frequency distribution. It is also known as a cumulative frequency polygon.

 

Q.79. Which of the following map scales would be most useful for study of the details of geographic features in the landscape of farming community

(1) 1 : 3,000,000

(2) 1 : 1,000,000

(3) 1 : 10,000

(4) 1 : 125,000

Answer: 3

  • According to their scale, all options classified as, 1: 10,000 = Cadastral map, 1: 125,000 = Topographical map, 1: 1,000,000 = Wall map, 1 : 3,000,000 = Atlas map.
  • In Cadastral Map Shows the area on a large scale.
  • A ‘large’ scale map is one in which a given part of the Earth is represented by a large area on the map.
  • Large scale maps generally show more detail than small scale maps because at a large scale there is more space on the map in which to show features.
  • Large scale maps are typically used to show site plans, local areas, neighborhoods, towns, etc. 1: 2,500 is an example of a large scale. A large-scale map showing the boundaries of subdivisions of land, usually with the directions and lengths thereof and the areas of individual tracts, compiled for the purpose of describing and recording ownership.
  • Large-scale diagrams or map shows more precise dimensions and features.
  • Cadastral maps commonly range from scales of 1:500 to 1:10,000.

Large Scale Map

Large scale maps are drawn to show small areas. E.g.- village map

It includes

(a) Cadastral maps (1:500 to 1:10,000)

(b) Topographical maps (1: 250,000, 1: 50,000 and 1: 25,000)

 

Small Scale Map – Smallscale maps are drawn to show large areas. E.g.- Continents, Large Nations It includes

(a) Wall Maps (1: 10,00,000)

(b) Atlas Maps (1:30,00,000)

 

Q.80. Given below are two statements: One is labelled as Assertion (A) and the other is labelled as Reason (R)

Assertion (A): According to the 2011 census, the scheduled tribes accounts for 8.6 percent of India’s population and are spread largely in forested and hilly regions.

Reason (R): The essential characteristics of scheduled tribe communities are primitive traits, geographical isolation and economic backwardness

In the light of the above statements choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:

(1) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

(2) Both (A) and (R) are correct but (R) is NOT the correct explanation of (A)

(3) (A) is correct but (R) is not correct

(4) (A) is not correct but (R) is correct

Answer: 1

  • The Scheduled Tribes are notified in 30 States/UTs and the number of individual ethnic groups, etc. notified as Scheduled Tribes is 705.
  • The tribal population of the country, as per the 2011 census, is 10.43 crore, constituting 8.6% of the total population.
  • 97% of them live in rural areas and 10.03% in urban areas. The decadal population growth of tribals from census 2001 to 2011 has been 23.66 % against the 17.69% of the entire population.
  • The sex ratio for the overall population is 943 females per thousand males and that scheduled tribe is 990 females per thousand males.
  • The essential characteristics of these communities are: Primitive Traits, Geographical isolation, Distinct culture, Shy of contact with the community at large Economically backward.

 

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