Geographical Thought Most Important Questions Part 2 for NTA UGC NET

Geographical Thought Most Important / Expected Questions Part 2 (16-30) for NTA UGC NET 2023 

(PDF) For download pdf file of GEOGRAPHICAL THOUGHT Important MCQS Part 2 (16-30) – – go to the bottom of this post.


Q.16. Who out of the following was the first teleologist (believe in God Creation)

(A) Plato

(B) Aristotle

(C) Anaximander

(D) Herodotus

Answer: B



 Q.17. Who advocated the logic of general to particular procedures?

(1) Eratosthenes

(2) Homer

(3) Aristotle

(4) Plato

Answer: 4

Plato: (428-347 BC):

[1] Master of deductive reasoning – from the general to the particular.

[2] Idea of Round Earth

[3] Plato’s opinion about barren land – “like skeleton of a sick man,”

[4] Plato considered man as an active agent who has the ability to change the face of the earth.


Q.18.  Who was the author of 17 Volumes of ‘Geographical Treaties’?

(1) Ptolemy

(2) Beatus

(3) Strabo

(4) Jerome

Answer: 3

Strabo (64 BC – 20 AD)

[1] Strabo is considered as the Father of regional geography

[2] Division of world by natural boundaries.not into political boundaries

[3] He declare that geography as a Chorological Science.

[4] His book Historical Memoir with 43 volume

[5] Geographical treatise or Geographica 17 Volume comprising four branches- Mathematical, Physical, Political & Historical Geography.

[6] Shape of earth Spherical (Geocentric Concept)

[7] Caspian Sea -Inland Sea & connected with Northern ocean

[8] In Physical Geography, he propounded the theory of alternate elevation and depression of extensive areas


Q.19. Who described geography as the science of map – making?

(A) Strabo

(B) Ptolemy

(C) Thales

(D) Hecateaus

Answer: B


Ptolemy (90 AD – 168 AD):

[1] Developed sound principles of mathematical Geography.

[2] He opined that-“Geography is a science which deals with the art of map-making”

[3] Shape of the Earth= Spherical (Geocentric)

[4] Major work/Book- [a] The Syntaxis- popularly known as ‘The Almagast’- great contribution on classical Astronomy.  [b] Guide to Geography –consisted of 8 volumes. Opens with an excellent theory of map projection.

[5] He promulgated the concept of “Terra-Australis-Incognita” (unknown land of the South) it helped in the discoveries of Australia, South America, and Antarctica.

[6] Minor work – The optics & The Tetrabiblos (Deals with reflection and refraction)


Q.20 The Arab scholar who made corrections to Ptolemy’s book was

(1) Ibn – Batuta

(2) Ibn Khaldun

(3) Al-Masudi

(4) Al-Idrisi

Answer: 4


Q.21. Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched?

(1) Strabo – Published 17 volumes work entitled as geography

(2) Ptolemy – Published a famous text called Almagest or Geographike Syntaxis

(3) Hipparchus – Designed orthographic and stereographic projections

(4) Hecataeus – Invented an instrument known as ‘Astrolabe’ for determination of latitudes and longitudes

Answer: (4)


Q.22. Which is the correct sequence of chronological order of Greeks scholar during the ancient period

(A) Aristotle – Eratosthenes – Anaximander – Ptolemy

(B) Eratosthenes – Anaximander – Ptolemy – Aristotle

(C) Anaximander – Aristotle – Eratosthenes – Ptolemy

(D) Ptolemy – Anaximander – Aristotle – Eratosthenes

Answer: C


Greek School of Thought
Greek Scholar Lifespan (Birth & Death)
1.      Homer ·         (750BC – 700 BC)
2.      Thales ·         (624 BC – 545 BC)
3.      Anaximender ·         (610 BC – 546 BC)
4.      Hecataeus ·         (550 BC – 476 BC)
5.      Herodotus ·         (485 BC- 425 BC)
6.      Plato ·         (428 BC – 347 BC)
7.      Aristotle ·         (384 BC – 322 BC)
8.      Erathosthenes ·         (276 BC – 194 BC)
9.      Polybius ·         (210 BC – 128 BC)
10.  Hipparchus ·         (190 BC – 120 BC)
11.  Posidonius ·         (135 BC – 50 BC)


Roman School of Thought
Roman Scholar Lifespan (Birth & Death)
1.      Strabo (64 BC – AD 20)
2.      Ptolemy (AD 90 – 168)



Q.23. Who among the following geographers correlated the colour of ocean water and its salinity? (UGC NET DEC 2018)

(1) Ibn Khaldun

(2) Ibn-Sina

(3) Al-Masudi

(4) Al-Maqdisi

Answer: 3


Al-Masudi (896 – 956 AD)

[i] Al-Masudi advocated that Earth has a spherical shape.

[ii] He believed that the surface of the sea is curved.

[iii] He named the seven seas while going from the Persian Gulf to China for trade.

[iv] He gave the name of Atlantic Ocean as Dark-Green Sea.

[v] Al-Masudi gave a good account of the Indian Monsoon.

[vi] He divided the world into seven regions on the basis of languages.

[vii] Books of Al-Masudi: [a] Mura-al-Dahab (Golden Meadows), [b] Kitab-al-Tanbhwal-Ishraf [c] Kitab-al-Ausat, and [d] Kitab-Akhbar-al-Zaman.


Q.24. Who has authored the famous book, ‘Muqaddimah’?

(1) ibn Batuta

(2) Al Biruni

(3) Al-Idrisi

(4) Ibn-Khaldun

Answer: 4

Ibn Khaldun (1332 AD- 1406 AD)

[i] His monumental work known as ‘Muqaddimah’

[ii] He was an environmental determinist.

[iii] He also contributed in the field of political geography.


Q.25. Which one of the following is correct chronological sequence of Arab geographers in the development of geography?

(A) Al-Biruni, Al-Idrisi, Ibn Battuta, Ibn Khaldun

(B) Al-Idrisi, Ibn-Khaldun, Al- Masudi, Al-Biruni

(C) Ibn-Khaldun, Al-Masudi, Al- Biruni, Al-Idrisi

(D) Al-Masudi, Ibn-Battuta, Ibn- Khaldun, Al-Biruni

Answer: (A)

Arab School of Thought
Arab Scholar Lifespan (Birth & Death)
[1] Al-Balakhi (AD 850 – 934)
[2] Al-Masudi (AD 890 – 956)
[3] Ibn-Hawqal-Abu-al-Mohammad Qasim (AD 912 – 978)
[4] Al-Biruni (AD 973 – 1039)
[5] Al-Idrisi  (AD 1099 – 1180)
[6] Ibn-Battuta (AD 1304 – 1368)
[7] Ibn- Khaldun (AD 1332 – 1406)


[1] Al-Balkhi (850 – 934 AD)

Al-Balkhi who collected climatic data from the accounts of various Arab travelers and prepared the world’s first climatic atlas based on that data entitles Kitab-Al Ashkal in 921.


[3] Ibn-Hawqal-Abu-al-Mohammad Qasim (912-978 AD)

[i] His book- ‘Book of Routes and Realms’


[4] Al-Biruni (Abu-Rayhan Mohammad) (973 -1048 AD)

[i] Eleventh Century was declared as the age of Albiruni.

[ii] He believed in the geocentric concept.

[iii] Kitab-al-Hind (1030) is regarded as his monumental work which deals with the geography of India

[iv] Al-biruni Book & theme

Book Theme/Subject
[a] Kitab-al-Hind Geography of India
[b] Al- Tahid Origin of universe
[c] Risalah Day & Night
[d] Kitab al Tahqiq & Harkatab al Shams Movement of Sun
[e] Qanun al Masudi Eclipse
[f] Al Qanun al Masudi The Canon of King Masud of Afghanistan
[g] Rashikat al Hind The Zodiac in India


[5] Al-Idrisi (1100 – 1165 AD)

[i] In 1154 AD, he wrote the book titled Amusements for Him Who Desires to Travel Around the World.

[ii] Al Idrisi who made corrections to Ptolemy’s book.


[6] Ibn Battuta (1304- 1369 AD)

[i] His book, Rihlah threw light on soils, habitat, agriculture, economy, society, and political history of the Muslim world.

[ii] He came to Delhi on an invitation of Mohammad Bin Tughlaq and served as a Qazi of Delhi.


Q.26. Which one of the following pairs does not match correctly?

          Author        –          Book

(A) Ibn Khaldun    –     Muqaddimah

(B) Al-Balakhi      –     Kitab ul Ashkal

(C) Al-Masudi      –      Routes and Realms

(D) Al-Biruni        –      Kitab-al-Hind

Answer: C


Q.27. Which Indian geographer has written the book ‘Geography of Puranas’?

(A) L.R. Singh

(B) S.M Ali

 (C) M. Shafi

(D) S.M. Rafiullah

Answer: B



Q.28. Who among the following geographers laid down the foundation of dichotomy of General versus Special Geography?

(A) Kant

(B) B. Varenius

(C) A. Hettner

(D) A.V. Humboldt

Answer: B


Bernhard Varenius (1622 – 1650)

[1] Varenius was the first scholar who laid the foundation of the dichotomy and dualism of Systematic vs. Regional Geography.

[2] His famous book- ‘Geographia Generalis’

[3] The period of Varenius and Kant is known as the Classical Period of Modern Geographic Thought.


Q.29. Who used the term ‘Chorography’ to describe Geography? (DEC 2019)

(A) B. Varenius

(B) A. Von Humboldt

(C) I. Kant

(D). C. Ritter

Answer: C


Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)

[1] I. Kant regarded as “Father of Exceptionalism”  

[2] Kant was more of an ‘armchair geographer’

[3] Immanuel Kant important book- ‘Critic of Pure Reason’ (1791)

[4] Kant was the first who provided an early statement of geography as ‘chorology’.


Q.30. Who laid the foundation of modern classical period of geography?

(A) Huntington and Davis

(B) Humboldt and Davis

(C) Hettner and Richthofen

(D) Varenius and Kant

Answer: D



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