Geographical Thought Most Important / Expected Questions Part 3 (31-40) for NTA UGC NET 2023
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Q.31. Who laid the foundation of Modern Geographical Thought?
(A) Kant and Varenius
(B) Humboldt and Ritter
(C) Hettner and Richthopen
(D) Humboldt and Davis
Q.32. Who coined the term ‘Cosmography’ and divided into Uranography and Geography
(A) O. Peschel
(B) C. Ritter
(C) B. Varenius
(D) A.V. Humboldt
Alexander Von Humboldt (1769-1859)
(1) Father of Modern Geography & founder of Systematic Geography.
(2) He coined the term ‘Cosmography’, & divided it into Uranography and Geography.
Uranography – is the descriptive astronomy which deals with celestial bodies.
Geography- was confined to physical geography which deals with the terrestrial part.
(3) He follows Inductive and Empirical Method of research.
(4) He was a supporter of Systematic Geography.
(5) Alexander Von Humboldt discovered Peruvian cold current.
(6) He coined the term permafrost.
(7) He introduced the word Climatology
(8) The concept of continentality concept was also established by Humboldt.
(to describe the effect that a location’s distance from an ocean has on its mean annual range of temperature).
(9) He advocated the concept of Zusammenhang (Hanging together)
He focused geography as the discipline concerned with both inorganic as well as organic phenomena on the earth’s surface as an interrelated entity.
(10) He believed in the ‘Unity of Nature’
(11) Important book- Kosmos (1845) & Asia Central
Q.33. A Scholar of which origin coined the term ‘permafrost’ to explain the frozen characteristics of the Siberian Soils?
Q.34. Who was the author of ‘Cosmos’?
Q.35. Who among the following gave the concept of “Unity in Diversity”?
(A) A.V. Humboldt
(C) C. Ritter
(D) O. Paschel
Carl Ritter (1779-1859)
 He was co-founder of Modern Geography with Humboldt.
 He developed the concept of ‘unity in diversity’
 Regional Geography approach introduced by Karl Ritter
 He famous for his Teleological Approach.
 Ritter known as ‘Armchair Geographer’
 His Eminent book- ‘Erdkunde’(1817).
 He follows deductive Method for Research.
Q.36. Who among the following geographers has teleological view?
(A) Carl Ritter
(B) A.V. Humboldt
(C) I. Kant
(D) F. Ratzel
Aristotle was the first teleologist (believe in God Creation)
Q.37. The approach that some of the geographical facts according to Ritter, cannot be explained scientifically, is termed as
Q.38. ‘The Eardkunde’ was published in the year 1817. Which one of the following authored the book?
(A) O. Peschel
(B) Carl Ritter
(C) W.M. Davis
(D) G. Taylor
Q.39. Which one of the following components does NOT match with the Darwinian theory of origin of species? (NTA UGC NET 2020)
(1) Natural hazard
(2) Natural selection
(4) Survival of the fittest
Charles Darwin (AD 1809 – 1882)
 He is famous for his theory of evolution and for a theory of its operation, known as Darwinism.
 His evolutionary theories are published in his two books- ‘Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859)’ and ‘Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex (1871)’.
 The fundamental ideas in Darwinian theory of evolution included
[i] Struggle for existence.
[ii] Variation within species.
[iii] Survival of the fittest.
[iv] Natural selection.
Q.40. Which of the following statements are correct about impact of Darwin on Geographical thought?
(A) James Hutton demonstrated the theory of uniformitarianism in landform evolution.
(B) Fleure used struggle and selection concept in his studies on races, states and towns.
(C) Darwin’s work on the origin of atolls and the idea regarding slow transformation of biological species over time, together inspired Davis to develop his own theory of the cycle of erosion.
(D) Stoddart stressed the need for physiological study to assess environmental effects on man.
Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(1) A and B only
(2) B and C only
(3) A and C only
(4) C and D only
Impact of Darwin on Geographical Thought
Darwin’s theory influenced the growth and development of geomorphology, human geography, political geography and cultural geography.
Impact on Geomorphology
Darwin’s evolutionary concept of change over time inspired American geographer W M Davis to develop concept of geographic cycle (Cycle of erosion). He advocated that like the evolution of organic life, there is a sequential evolution of landforms. In the evolution of landforms, Davis identified three stages youth, maturity and old. He stressed that ‘landform is a function of structure, process and time’.
Impact on Landschaft
Under the influence of Darwin’s theory of origin of species, German geomorphologists defined geography as ‘landscape science’. They distinguished the natural landscape from the cultural landscape and recognised importance of human agency.
Impact on Human Geography
Darwin’s theory about ‘origin of species’ and ‘descent of man’ helped to explain man and environment relationship. It gave a new direction to doctrine of environmental determinism, that is, control on human activities by the environment.
Ratzel in his book ‘Anthropogeographic’ asserted that ‘similar locations lead to similar mode of life’. Ellen Churchill Semple in his book ‘Influences of Geographic Environment’ advocated that ‘man is the product of the Earth’s surface’. Huntington also declared that ‘climate controls the progress and development of human civilisation’.
Impact on Political Geography
Darwinian concept of struggle and survival of the fittest, influenced Ratzel to define the Concept of Lebensraum (living space) in his book ‘Political Geography’. Ratzel drew similarity between a nation and a living organism. He argued that as a growing organism searches for space, a country searches for territorial expansion. The concept of ‘living space’ also helped in the development of biogeography.
Impact on Cultural Landscape
Carl O. Sauer in his article “The Morphology of Landscape” coined the concept of ‘cultural landscape’. The landscape approach described the interrelation between humans and environment, primarily emphasising human impact on environment. Hence, it was an alternative to environmental determinism.
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